Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 108135, 9 pages
Review Article

Panic Disorder: Is the PAG Involved?

Psychiatry Division, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, 14048-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Received 28 May 2008; Revised 25 September 2008; Accepted 17 December 2008

Academic Editor: Robert Adamec

Copyright © 2009 Cristina Marta Del-Ben and Frederico Guilherme Graeff. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Data from studies with humans have suggested that abnormalities of midbrain structures, including the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), could be involved in the neurobiology of panic disorder (PD). The electrical stimulation of the PAG in neurosurgical patients induces panic-like symptoms and the effect of drugs that are effective in the treatment of PD in the simulation of public speaking model of anxiety is in agreement with data from animal models of PD. Structural neuroimaging studies have shown increases in gray matter volume of midbrain and pons of PD patients. There is also evidence of lower serotonin transporter and receptor binding, and increases of metabolism in the midbrain of PD patients. Nevertheless, these midbrain abnormalities can not be considered as specific findings, since neuroimaging data indicate that PD patients have abnormalities in other brain structures that process fear and anxiety.