Diacylglycerol Signaling Underlies Astrocytic ATP Release
OAG-induced ATP release from astrocytes appears to be vesicular. (a) Incubation of cultured astrocytes with 100 nM Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of the vesicular H+ ATPases that set up the proton gradients necessary for vesicle filling, greatly reduced OAG-induced astrocytic ATP release (bafilomycin , control ; , , ). This effect was partially washed out after 15 minutes ( bafilomycin versus wash ). (b) Bafilomycin treatment did not affect the function of astrocytic ATP receptors, as the calcium response to 1 μM ATP was unaffected by bafilomycin treatment (bafilomycin , control ). (c) The gap junction and hemichannel blocker carbenoxolone (CBX), at 50 μM, resulted in an increase in astrocytic ATP release (control , CBX ; ).
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