Genetics and Function of Neocortical GABAergic Interneurons in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Interneuron diversity. Interneurons are diverse in terms of their histochemical profile, morphology, physiological properties, and connectivity. In this schematic representation, parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons (red) include basket cells forming perisomatic contacts on adjacent pyramidal cells (dark blue), as well as chandelier cells that target the pyramidal cell axon initial segment. Somatostatin-positive (SST) interneurons include Martinotti cells that contact pyramidal cell dendrites in layer I. Vasointestinal peptide (VIP) and calretinin (CR) double-positive bitufted interneurons target pyramidal cells and other interneurons. Neurogliaform cells, marked with reelin, are the most abundant interneurons in layer I and provide tonic GABAergic inhibition via volume transmission of GABA.