Neural Plasticity / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

The Role of Astrocytes in the Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation

Table 1

Summary of receptors/signaling molecules and related mechanisms.

Signaling moleculeReceptor(s)Mechanism of action in plasticity/memory formation

AcetylcholineMuscarinic Ach-R'sCauses an increase in [Ca2+] activating mGluR's
AdenosineA1 ReceptorsInhibition of cAMP dependent transcription
ATPP2Y ReceptorsEnhances concentration of AMPA receptors
Cytokines
(i) TNF-
(ii) CCL2
(iii) Interleukin-1
(i) CXCR4
(ii) NMDA Receptors
(iii) IL1 Receptors
(i) Glutamate release and the insertion of AMPA receptors
(ii) Inhibits NMDA receptor activity
(iii) Unknown
D-SerineNMDA ReceptorsCoagonist of receptors
Ephrin
(i) Ephrin-A
(ii) Ephrin-B
(i) EphA Receptors
(ii) EphB Receptors
(i) Promotes retraction of dendritic spines
(ii) Regulates D-serine release
GlutamateAMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, mGluR’sIncreased EPSP, upregulation of AMPA receptors
LactateMCT2Provides additional metabolic energy for growth/plasticity
NicotinenAchRReleases Ca2+ and promotes the release of D-serine