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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2015, Article ID 985083, 16 pages
Research Article

Effects of Trace Metal Profiles Characteristic for Autism on Synapses in Cultured Neurons

1WG Molecular Analysis of Synaptopathies, Neurology Department, Neurocenter of Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany
2Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm, Germany

Received 9 December 2014; Revised 19 January 2015; Accepted 19 January 2015

Academic Editor: Lucas Pozzo-Miller

Copyright © 2015 Simone Hagmeyer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

Figure S1: Exemplary images of toxicity profiles of trace elements in primary hippocampal neuronal cell culture, glia cell culture and calculation of LD50 values for each trace element. Furthermore, definition of dendritic branching analysis and evaluation of osmotic pressure effects on neuronal cell health.

Figure S2: Comparison of original and reconstituted NB+++ Medium and exemplary images of immunofluorescence intensities of Shank proteins under Ctrl, ASD2 and ASD2+Zn conditions. Further, analysis of antagonistic or synergistic relation between zinc and toxic trace elements and examination of presence of presynaptic zinc.

Figure S3: Pure zinc deficiency is not causative for effects observed under ASD2 conditions.

  1. Supplementary Materials