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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2016, Article ID 2701526, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2701526
Review Article

Role of NMDA Receptor-Mediated Glutamatergic Signaling in Chronic and Acute Neuropathologies

1Laboratorio de Función y Patología Neuronal, Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8331150 Santiago, Chile
2Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA

Received 19 February 2016; Revised 13 June 2016; Accepted 29 June 2016

Academic Editor: Kui D. Kang

Copyright © 2016 Francisco J. Carvajal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have two opposing roles in the brain. On the one hand, NMDARs control critical events in the formation and development of synaptic organization and synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, the overactivation of NMDARs can promote neuronal death in neuropathological conditions. Ca2+ influx acts as a primary modulator after NMDAR channel activation. An imbalance in Ca2+ homeostasis is associated with several neurological diseases including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These chronic conditions have a lengthy progression depending on internal and external factors. External factors such as acute episodes of brain damage are associated with an earlier onset of several of these chronic mental conditions. Here, we will review some of the current evidence of how traumatic brain injury can hasten the onset of several neurological conditions, focusing on the role of NMDAR distribution and the functional consequences in calcium homeostasis associated with synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death present in this group of chronic diseases.