The Vitamin A Derivative All-Trans Retinoic Acid Repairs Amyloid-β-Induced Double-Strand Breaks in Neural Cells and in the Murine Neocortex
Control experiments for the effects of Aβ and RA on mean comet tail lengths in SH-SY5Y cells. (a) Box plot of mean comet tail lengths according to 30 min treatments with Aβ1–42 and control peptides Aβ42–1 or Aβ1–40 (20 μM Aβ; number of cells measured: ). (b) Box plot of mean comet tail lengths depending on 30 min treatments of various RA concentrations (). (c) Box plot of mean comet tail lengths according to 30 min treatments with 20 μM Aβ1–42, 5 μM RA, 10 μM RARα/β agonist Am80, and its solvent DMSO (1% v/v), demonstrating a similar specific effect of RA and of Am80 in SH-SY5Y cells (). (d) Box plot of mean comet tail lengths according to the RARα/β/γ antagonist AGN 193109 (1–50 μM AGN) in presence or absence of 5 μM RA (). The reduced mean tail length due to RA is abolished in presence of AGN. ANOVA with Bonferroni correction: ; ns = not significant; Ø = without treatment for 30 min.