Altered ERK1/2 Signaling in the Brain of Learned Helpless Rats: Relevance in Vulnerability to Developing Stress-Induced Depression
Western blots showing immunolabeling of ERK1 and ERK2 in frontal cortex (FC) (a) and hippocampus (b) of tested control (TC), non-NLH (NLH), and learned helpless (LH) rats. β-actin was used as endogenous control and a ratio of optical density of ERK1 and ERK2 to the optical density of the corresponding β-actin was calculated. (b) Mean ± SD of protein expression levels of ERK1 and ERK2 in FC (c) and hippocampus (d) of TC, non-LH, and LH rats (/group). Overall group differences in the 3 groups are as follows. ERK1: FC, , , and ; hippocampus, , , and . ERK2: FC, , , and ; hippocampus, , , and .