Altered ERK1/2 Signaling in the Brain of Learned Helpless Rats: Relevance in Vulnerability to Developing Stress-Induced Depression
Catalytic activities of ERK1/2 (represented as ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of Elk1) in cytosolic and nuclear fractions of FC (a) and hippocampus (c) obtained from TC (tested controls), non-learned helpless (non-LH), and learned helpless (LH) rats. β-actin was used as normalizer. Mean ± SD of Elk1 phosphorylation in cytosolic and nuclear fractions of FC (b) and hippocampus (d) of TC, non-LH, and LH rats (/group). Overall group differences among TC, non-LH, and LH rats are as follows. FC: cytosolic, , , and ; nuclear, , , and . Hippocampus: cytosolic, , , and ; nuclear, , , and .