Altered ERK1/2 Signaling in the Brain of Learned Helpless Rats: Relevance in Vulnerability to Developing Stress-Induced Depression
Immunolabeling of p-ERK1/2 in FC (a) and hippocampus (c) obtained from tested control (TC), non-learned helpless (non-LH), and learned helpless (LH) rats. β-actin was used as endogenous control. Mean ± SD of ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation in FC and hippocampus of TC, non-LH, and LH rats (/group) is depicted in (b) and (d), respectively. Overall group differences in the 3 groups are as follows. FC: ERK1, , , and ; ERK2, , , and . Hippocampus: ERK1, , , and ; ERK2, , , and .