Altered ERK1/2 Signaling in the Brain of Learned Helpless Rats: Relevance in Vulnerability to Developing Stress-Induced Depression
Representative Western blots showing ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of RSK1 in cytosolic and nuclear fractions of frontal cortex (FC) (a) and hippocampus (b) and MSK1 in nuclear fraction of FC and hippocampus (d) obtained from tested control (TC), non-learned helpless (non-LH), and learned helpless (LH) rats. β-actin was used as endogenous control. Differences in phosphorylation of RSK1 and MSK1 in FC and hippocampus between TC, non-LH, and LH rats are shown in (c) and (e), respectively. Data are the mean ± SD from 6 rats in each group. Overall group differences for RSK1 among TC, non-LH, and LH rats are as follows. FC: cytosolic, , , and ; nuclear, , , and . Hippocampus: cytosolic, , , and ; nuclear, , , and . Overall group differences for MSK1 in nuclear fraction among TC, non-LH, and LH rats are as follows. FC: , , and ; hippocampus: , , and .