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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2016, Article ID 7931693, 7 pages
Review Article

Otx2-PNN Interaction to Regulate Cortical Plasticity

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, CNRS UMR 7241/INSERM U1050, Labex Memolife, Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France

Received 5 June 2015; Accepted 13 July 2015

Academic Editor: Tommaso Pizzorusso

Copyright © 2016 Clémence Bernard and Alain Prochiantz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The ability of the environment to shape cortical function is at its highest during critical periods of postnatal development. In the visual cortex, critical period onset is triggered by the maturation of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons, which gradually become surrounded by a specialized glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix: the perineuronal nets. Among the identified factors regulating cortical plasticity in the visual cortex, extracortical homeoprotein Otx2 is transferred specifically into parvalbumin interneurons and this transfer regulates both the onset and the closure of the critical period of plasticity for binocular vision. Here, we review the interaction between the complex sugars of the perineuronal nets and homeoprotein Otx2 and how this interaction regulates cortical plasticity during critical period and in adulthood.