Table 2: Profile of Mood States (POMS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores before and after meditation training. Group means and standard deviations are listed. Significant group differences are listed as follows: : significant at , : significant at , and : significant at . : before training, 6 out of 13 subjects surpassed the cutoff for depression. (+): positive mood state factor, (−): negative mood state factor.

QuestionnaireBefore trainingAfter training

POMS
 Anger (−)2.84 (±3.78)3.30 (±6.07)
 Fatigue (−)4.84 (±2.67)3.69 (±4.57)
 Vigor (+)11.92 (±5.31)12.30 (±5.36)
 Friendliness (+)18.92 (±2.98)19.46 (±4.27)
 Tension (−)8.00 (±3.36)5.38 (±5.18)
 Depression (−)3.76 (±3.94)4.53 (±8.04)

CES-D16.23 (±9.54)9 (±6.20)

STAI, state17.84 (±4.75)14.38 (±10.16)
STAI, trait21.30 (±8.6)16.84 (±9.56)