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Neural Plasticity
Volume 2017, Article ID 1389475, 15 pages
Review Article

Assessed and Emerging Biomarkers in Stroke and Training-Mediated Stroke Recovery: State of the Art

1Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
2UOC Neurorehabilitation, AOUI Verona, Verona, Italy
3Immunology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Marialuisa Gandolfi; ti.rvinu@iflodnag.asiulairam

Received 9 November 2016; Accepted 11 January 2017; Published 8 March 2017

Academic Editor: Annalena Venneri

Copyright © 2017 Marialuisa Gandolfi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Since the increasing update of the biomolecular scientific literature, biomarkers in stroke have reached an outstanding and remarkable revision in the very recent years. Besides the diagnostic and prognostic role of some inflammatory markers, many further molecules and biological factors have been added to the list, including tissue derived cytokines, growth factor-like molecules, hormones, and microRNAs. The literatures on brain derived growth factor and other neuroimmune mediators, bone-skeletal muscle biomarkers, cellular and immunity biomarkers, and the role of microRNAs in stroke recovery were reviewed. To date, biomarkers represent a possible challenge in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of stroke onset, pathogenesis, and recovery. Many molecules are still under investigation and may become promising and encouraging biomarkers. Experimental and clinical research should increase this list and promote new discoveries in this field, to improve stroke diagnosis and treatment.