Table 2: Neural plasticity in the treatment of depression.

TherapyModelMechanism and influence of neural plasticity

ElectroacupunctureRatsReverses the impairment induced by long-term potentiation in CA1 synapses of hippocampus

Electroconvulsive shockRats and humansFacilitates hippocampal neurogenesis, an early decrease of intralimbic functional connectivity and a later increase of limbic-prefrontal functional connectivity, and makes neuroplasticity changes in the amygdala due to neurotrophic processes including neurogenesis

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulationHumansPromotes amygdala-lateral prefrontal network resting state functional connectivity in right amygdala

Real-time fMRI neurofeedback trainingHumansEnhances blood-oxygenation-level-dependent activity in amygdala

Positive emotional learningRatsFacilitates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity learning

Physical exerciseRatsPrevents changes in synaptic plasticity and increases in synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons caused by stress

Nutritional substance supplementationRatsPrevents the development of depression through impeding HPA axis hyperactivity

Glucocorticoid receptor antagonistsRatsProtects against negative synaptic plasticity in CA1 induced by stress

Monoaminergic antidepressantsRatsProtects against negative synaptic plasticity in CA1 induced by stress

TJZL184 (a monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor)RatsEnhances adult neurogenesis and long-term synaptic plasticity in the DG of the hippocampus

Lycium barbarumRatsEnhances synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

Lithium (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)Rats and humansFacilitates hippocampal neurogenesis

Fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)RatsAmygdala neuroplasticity, alleviates upregulation of synaptosomal polysialic neural cell adhesion molecule and reverses the inhibitory effects of chronic mild stress on spontaneous burst firing of medial prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons

Tadalafil (phosphodiesterase inhibitor)RatsSuppresses maternal separation-induced apoptosis and increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus

Venlafaxine (serotonin/norepinephrine dual reuptake inhibitor)RatsSuppresses hippocampal apoptosis by upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Ketamine and lanicemine (NMDA receptor antagonists)RatsIncreases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by activating threonine kinase (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways and increases synaptic number and function in the prefrontal cortex

Mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist)RatsIncreases PFC levels of BDNF and monoamines