Table 1: Group characteristics and self-reported sensations during training sessions.

Sham ()Active ()Group difference ( value, effect size)

Demographics
 Gender (male/female)8 : 166 : 200.623
 Age (years; M ± SD)20.96 ± 2.9720.27 ± 1.710.446, d = 0.217
Baseline performance
 Pretest initiation time (s; M ± SD)0.77 ± 0.250.89 ± .300.117, d = 0.455
 Pretest execution time (s; M ± SD)1.92 ± 0.572.02 ± 0.680.590, d = 0.153
 Pretest error rate (%; M ± SD)25 ± 1330 ± 150.203, d = 0.366
Sensations
 Strongest (M ± SD)1.23 ± 0.491.46 ± 0.790.478, d = 0.202
Affected (M ± SD)0.16 ± 0.320.30 ± 0.360.037, d = 0.618
Lasted (M ± SD)1.14 ± 0.481.79 ± 0.710.001, d = 1.04

Items in italics (last two rows) highlight variables that significantly differed between the sham and active stimulation groups. Strongest: the strongest reported sensation intensity level (0–4); affected: how much did sensations affect performance (0–4); lasted: when did the discomfort stop (0–3).