Neural Plasticity / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Action Observation Treatment Improves Upper Limb Motor Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Combined Clinical and Brain Imaging Study

Table 1

Demographic data, clinical features, and radiological findings in treated participants and controls.

Pt. numberCase/controlSex (M, F)GA (wk)Age (yr, m)CP type HagbergMotor abnormalitiesGMFCSMACSCFCSAssociated impairmentsTotal IQVerbal IQPerformance IQRadiological findings (brain MRI)

1CaseM339 yr, 5 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia221V: CVI; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no859282Right temporooccipital, left occipitoparietal, bilateral periventricular, and left frontotemporal subdural hematomas

2CaseF278 yr, 2 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia121V: ROP; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no100106107Mild bilateral periventricular leukomalacia, mild ventricular dilatation

3ControlM407 yr, 10 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia221V: no; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no9910197Left subdural occipitotemporal hematoma and epidural parietotemporal hematoma; hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy characterized by signal alterations in both putamen tail and anterior thalamus

4ControlM348 yr, 3 mTetraplegiaBilateral spastic hypertonia, left side more affected432V: CVI; H: no; M/A: yes; LD: no; E: no739750Hypoxic ischemic injury with thinning of the corpus callosum, enlargement of CSF spaces, widespread hyperintensity of centrum semiovale, corona radiata, and periventricular white matter, dilation of the ventricles

5ControlF406 yr, 8 mTetraplegiaBilateral spastic hypertonia, left side more affected423V: CVI; H: no; M/A: yes; LD: no; E: no11413977Diffuse periventricular hyperintensity with parietal bilateral white matter involvement; mild dilatation of bilateral ventricular trigone

6CaseF3011 yr, 9 mTetraplegiaBilateral spastic hypertonia, left side more affected432V: CVI; H: no; M/A: yes; LD: yes; E: yes568950Periventricular leukomalacia, fronto-parieto-occipital white matter reduction, ex vacuo enlargement of bilateral ventricles

7ControlF379 yr, 1 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia121V: CVI; H: no; M/A: yes; LD: no; E: no8784100Left periventricular malacic area with gliosis, extended into the corona radiata; left corticospinal projection hyperintensisty with mild cerebellar peduncle hypotrophy (Wallerian degeneration)

8ControlF318 yr, 9 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia211V: CVI; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no879977Bilateral parietal cystic periventricular leukomalacia, with centrum semiovale white matter involvement, short distance between cortex and ventricular walls in temporoparietal areas, thinning of the corpus callosum

9CaseFNot known11 yr, 9 mLeft hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia221V: no; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: yesLeiter -R
82
Right fronto-parieto-temporal malacic area, ex vacuo enlargement of the ventricle and Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract

10CaseM326 yr, 10 mTetraplegiaBilateral spastic hypertonia, right side more affected322V: CVI; H: no; M/A: yes; LD: no; E: no8912070Periventricular leukomalacia, corpus callosum hypoplasia, hippocampal commissure agenesis

11ControlM385 yr, 2 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia232V: CVI; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no9811887Cortical laminar necrosis (left insular cortex, left frontoparietal areas, and left temporal lobe). Signal T2 and FLAIR hyperintensity in the left caudate nucleus and in the left corona radiata (ischemic event)

12CaseF3110 yr, 1 mTetraplegiaBilateral spastic hypertonia, left side more affected433V: CVI; H: no; M/A: yes; LD: no; E: no859282Severe periventricular leukomalacia with major involvement of the posterior area, associated with supra- and subtentorial ventricular dilatation and subarachnoid spaces enlargement, thinning of the corpus callosum

13CaseF418 yr, 2 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia321V: CVI; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: yes879977Left hemispheric atrophy (previous extensive left frontoparietal intraparenchymal hemorrhage, wide left parietal subdural hematoma), ex vacuo dilatation of the ipsilateral ventricles and midline brain right to left shift, Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract and ipsilateral cerebellar peduncle atrophy

14CaseM335 yr, 10 mRight hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia232V: strabismus; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no859282Left fronto-parieto-temporo-insular polymicrogyria (perisylvian and perirolandic with cortical infolding), mild left temporal atrophy with subarachnoid spaces enlargement

15CaseF6 yr, 8 mLeft hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia431V: no; H: no; M/A: yes; LD: no; E: yes100106107Ischemic right frontoparietal malacic area with focal cortical atrophy, gliosis, subarachnoid space enlargement, and mid ipsilateral ventricular dilatation. Mild controlateral periventricular white matter hyperintensity

16CaseM386 yr, 3 mLeft hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia232V: no; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no9910197Malacic areas affecting the right middle cerebral artery territory with Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract and of the thalamus, left hemisphere hypotrophy

18CaseM405 yr, 3 mLeft hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia231V: strabismus; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: yes101106100Right periventricular porencephalic lesion (hemorrhagic venous infarct) with hemosiderin deposition and Wallerian degeneration of the ipsilateral corticospinal tract

18ControlM366 yr, 4 mLeft hemiplegiaUnilateral spastic hypertonia121V: no; H: no; M/A: no; LD: no; E: no909493Supratentorial right malacic areas with right lateral ventricular dilatation; hemosiderin deposition secondary to germinal matrix hemorrhage

M: male; F: female; GA: gestational age; CP: cerebral palsy; GMFCS: Gross Motor Function Classification System; MACS: Manual Ability Classification System; CFCS: Communication Function Classification System; V: vision; CVI: cerebral visual impairment; H: hearing; M/A: memory and attention; LD: learning disabilities (North American usage; mental retardation); E: epilepsy; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging.