Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neural Plasticity
Volume 2019, Article ID 7067592, 15 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7067592
Review Article

Default Mode Network, Meditation, and Age-Associated Brain Changes: What Can We Learn from the Impact of Mental Training on Well-Being as a Psychotherapeutic Approach?

1Escuela de Tecnología Médica, Universidad Andrés Bello, Quillota 980, 2531015 Viña del Mar, Chile
2Interdisciplinary Centre for Health Studies (CIESAL), Universidad de Valparaíso, Angamos 655, 2540064 Viña del Mar, Chile
3Biomedical Research Centre (CIB), Universidad de Valparaíso, Angamos 655, 2540064 Viña del Mar, Chile
4School of Medicine, Universidad de Valparaíso, Angamos 655, 2540064 Viña del Mar, Chile
5División de Neurociencias (NeuroCICS), Centro de Investigación en Complejidad Social (CICS), Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
6Laboratorio de Estructura y Función Celular, Escuela de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Valparaíso, Hontaneda 2664, 2341386 Valparaíso, Chile
7Laboratorio de Neurociencia Cognitiva y Social, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Diego Portales, Chile
8Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Interdisciplinary Center for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Correspondence should be addressed to Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes; lc.banu@zerimar.odracir

Received 10 August 2018; Revised 8 January 2019; Accepted 26 February 2019; Published 2 April 2019

Guest Editor: Sharon S. Simon

Copyright © 2019 Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aging is a physiological process accompanied by cognitive decline, principally in memory and executive functions. Alterations in the connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) have been found to participate in cognitive decline, as well as in several neurocognitive disorders. The DMN has antisynchronic activity with attentional networks (task-positive networks (TPN)), which are critical to executive function and memory. Findings pointing to the regulation of the DMN via activation of TPN suggest that it can be used as a strategy for neuroprotection. Meditation is a noninvasive and nonpharmacological technique proven to increase meta-awareness, a cognitive ability which involves the control of both networks. In this review, we discuss the possibility of facilitating healthy aging through the regulation of networks through meditation. We propose that by practicing specific types of meditation, cognitive decline could be slowed, promoting a healthy lifestyle, which may enhance the quality of life for the elderly.