Layout diagrams of the coupled thalamocortical model (CTM) without and with bidirectional channel. (a) Original CTM consists of two regions of PY–IN cortex and SRN–TRN subcortical circuit [20
]. (b) Coupled thalamocortical model with bidirectional channel (CTMBC). The arrow and round headlines represent the excitatory and inhibitory projections from glutamate and GABAA receptors, respectively. The midrange and bidirectional connections are adopted in cortex and subcortical circuit between two different coupled modules. Double arrow lines and double round headlines denote the same bidirectional excitatory and inhibitory projections, respectively. Single arrow lines and single round headlines at the opposite ends of the projections denote different interactional channels (color figure online).