Neurology Research International
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Acceptance rate25%
Submission to final decision67 days
Acceptance to publication20 days
CiteScore2.400
Journal Citation Indicator0.330
Impact Factor-

Use of Off-Label Drugs and Nutrition Supplements among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Norway

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Neurology Research International focuses on diseases of the nervous system, as well as normal neurological functioning. Research topics include basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.

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Neurology Research International maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Research Article

The Assessment of Knowledge about Tourette’s Syndrome among Medical Students and Primary Physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background. Tourette’s syndrome (TS), a chronic, often disabling neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics, is frequently misdiagnosed, or patients are delayed in diagnosis. There is severe deficiency of research about Tourette’s syndrome (TS) in the Middle East region. Objectives. To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of medical students and primary care physicians (PCPs) about TS and tic disorders. Methods. IRB approved, cross-sectional study. A total of 316 medical students of King Saud bin Abdulaziz University and 59 primary care physicians of Riyadh participated. Convenient, cluster sampling was used. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was used. Sum of all knowledge questions was calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Survey was completed by 375 students and physicians, of whom 253 (67.5%) were men. Mean general knowledge score was 61.5 (±12.04) out of 100. Majority (66.1%) knew the diagnostic criteria for TS; only 46.1% considered antipsychotics as effective treatment. Only 25.1% had ever heard of habit reversal; 70% wanted to learn more. Only 10% of physicians had treated a patient with TS. There was no difference in knowledge between men and women (). Board-certified physicians had a higher knowledge score (). Family physicians demonstrated higher level of knowledge compared to other physicians (). There was no difference between knowledge of students of different years () or between students and physicians (). Conclusion. There was alarming lack of knowledge about Tourette syndrome at various level of medical training and practice including students and physicians. Those who achieved board certification and practiced as family physicians fared better in knowledge about Tourette’s syndrome.

Review Article

Brain Connectivity and Network Analysis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment or cure. ALS is characterized by the death of lower motor neurons (LMNs) in the spinal cord and upper motor neurons (UMNs) in the brain and their networks. Since the lower motor neurons are under the control of UMN and the networks, cortical degeneration may play a vital role in the pathophysiology of ALS. These changes that are not apparent on routine imaging with CT scans or MRI brain can be identified using modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, arterial spin labelling (ASL), electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetoencephalogram (MEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. They can help us generate a representation of brain networks and connectivity that can be visualized and parsed out to characterize and quantify the underlying pathophysiology in ALS. In addition, network analysis using graph measures provides a novel way of understanding the complex network changes occurring in the brain. These have the potential to become biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of ALS. This article is a systematic review and overview of the various connectivity and network-based studies in ALS.

Research Article

Determinants of Cerebral Palsy in Pediatric Patients in Northern Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Study

Introduction. Cerebral palsy is the most common neurologic disorder of childhood with lifelong implications in majority of patients. Knowledge of the determinants of cerebral palsy is important for accurate mobilization of resources in obstetric, perinatal, and infant care besides implementation of prevention systems. In Ethiopia, however, this knowledge gap exists as there are no published studies on determinants of cerebral palsy in the country. Objective. To assess the determinants of cerebral palsy in pediatric patients attending Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital between April 2019 and August 2019. Methods. An unmatched case-control study was conducted among 50 pediatric cerebral palsy patients and 100 controls, pediatric patients without cerebral palsy or other motor or central nervous system illnesses, attending Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 27. Results. Significant factors were operative vaginal delivery (AOR: 9.49, 95% CI: 1.31–68.88), central nervous system infections (AOR: 0.02, 95% CI: 0–0.58), neonatal admissions (AOR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03–0.61), and unknown maternal education status (AOR: 18.64, 95% CI: 2.15–161.73). Conclusion. Operative vaginal delivery, central nervous system infections in infancy, neonatal hospital admissions, and unknown maternal education status were found to be significant determinants for cerebral palsy. This knowledge aids focused hospital and regional health bureau development and implementation of prevention strategies for cerebral palsy, besides improvement of obstetric and neonatal healthcare services, and provides baseline data to the scientific community for further research.

Research Article

Limb Muscle Reinnervation with the Nerve-Muscle-Endplate Grafting Technique: An Anatomical Feasibility Study

Background. Peroneal nerve injuries results in tibialis anterior (TA) muscle paralysis. TA paralysis could cause “foot drop,” a disabling condition that can make walking difficult. As current treatment methods result in poor functional recovery, novel treatment approaches need to be studied. The aim of this study was to explore anatomical feasibility of limb reinnervation with our recently developed nerve-muscle-endplate grafting (NMEG) in the native motor zone (NMZ). Methods. As the NMEG-NMZ technique involves in nerves and motor endplates (MEPs), the nerve supply patterns and locations of the MEP bands within the gastrocnemius (GM) and TA muscles of rats were investigated using Sihler’s stain and whole-mount acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining, respectively. Five adult rats underwent TA nerve transaction. The denervated TA was reinnervated by transferring an NMEG pedicle from the ipsilateral lateral GM. At the end of a 3-month recovery period, maximal muscle force was measured to document functional recovery. Results. The results showed that the TA was innervated by the deep peroneal nerve. A single MEP band was located obliquely in the middle of the TA. The GM was composed of two neuromuscular compartments, lateral (GM-l) and medial (GM-m), each of which was innervated by a separate nerve branch derived from the tibial nerve and had a vertically positioned MEP band. The locations of MEP bands in the GM and TA muscles and nerve supply patterns demonstrated that an NMEG pedicle can be harvested from the GM-l and implanted into the NMZ within the TA muscle. The NMEG-NMZ pilot study showed that this technique resulted in optimal muscle force recovery. Conclusion. NMEG-NMZ surgery is feasible for limb reinnervation. Specifically, the denervated TA caused by peroneal nerve injuries can be reinnervated with a NMEG from the GM-l.

Research Article

The SP/NK1R System-Mediated ROS Generation in GBM Cells through Inhibiting Glutaredoxin Protein

Altered redox balance is among the main contributing factors developing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly aggressive grade IV brain tumor. Neuropeptide substance P (SP) plays a key role in modifying the cellular redox environment by activating the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). In this study, we aimed to investigate the redox-modulating properties of both SP and a commercially available NK1R antagonist, aprepitant in GBM cells. To detect the effect of aprepitant on the viability of U87 glioblastoma cells, resazurin assay was applied. The level of intracellular ROS was assessed using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) assay. The expression of glutaredoxin, a well-known redox-active protein, was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Concurrently, the activity of glutaredoxin was also analyzed by a commercial kit (ZellBio GmbH). We found that SP increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in U87 GBM cells, and aprepitant remarkably decreased this effect. We also explored the effects of SP/NK1R signaling on the glutaredoxin system as a major cellular redox buffer in GBM cells. SP reduced both expression and enzymatic activity of glutaredoxin, and these effects were significantly decreased by aprepitant. In conclusion, our results suggest a possible involvement of SP/NK1R signaling in GBM pathogenesis through oxidative stress and offering new insight for the application of aprepitant as a redox-modulating strategy in GBM patients.

Research Article

Investigation of the Possible Correlation between Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease and Diabetes Mellitus in Egyptian Patients: A Pilot Study

Objectives. To study the diabetes-Parkinson's disease (PD) linkage. Methods. The investigators recorded the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) score for 60 diabetic patients: 30 patients were treated with metformin-inclusive sulfonylurea and 30 patients were treated with sulphonylurea(s) monotherapy and matched with 30 controls. We evaluated blood glucose kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test for (22) nondiabetic parkinsonian patients and (10) controls. The motor complications scores were recorded for all parkinsonian patients using the relevant parts of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part IV. Results. Diabetics recorded higher scores of RBDSQ than controls (), with no differences related to antidiabetic therapy. In nondiabetic PD patients, after oral glucose, blood glucose was significantly higher at T1 () than controls. Moreover, the total area under the time curve for blood glucose levels was significantly higher in PD compared to controls (281.22 ± 52.25 vs. 245.65 ± 48.63 mg.hr./dL; ). Higher blood glucose levels were associated with motor abnormalities. Diabetic PD patients recorded higher scores of UPDRS (). Conclusion. Diabetes mellitus and Parkinson’s disease are linked, which raises concerns about either of them, probably increasing the risk of the other. This trial is registered with NCT03685357.

Neurology Research International
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate25%
Submission to final decision67 days
Acceptance to publication20 days
CiteScore2.400
Journal Citation Indicator0.330
Impact Factor-
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