Serum Level of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Thrombotic Type Are Predictive of Cognitive Impairment in the Acute Period of Ischemic Strokes PatientsRead the full article
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Item Selection for a New Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Parkinson’s Disease: The Preference-Based Parkinson’s Disease Index (PB-PDI)
Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition, predominantly affecting older adults. Preference-based measures (PBMs) can be used to make decisions about the cost-utility of different treatments. There are currently no PBMs for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for PD. A previous study identified important health domains for individuals with PD and developed an item pool from existing measures per domain. The current study aims to contribute to the development of a new disease-specific PBM of HRQoL for PD by reducing the current pool of items according to the preferences of individuals with PD. Methods. Fifty-three participants completed a visual analogue scale (VAS) of self-perceived health, the prototype PBM measure, and an item importance rating. To reduce the item pool, the following were calculated: (1) inter-item correlations; (2) impact of each item based on item performance and importance rating; (3) directionality of response options by comparing the VAS scores against each item. Results. Participants (male = 54.7%, age = 60.0 ± 10.2) had a median Hoehn and Yahr score of 2.5 (interquartile range = 1). Items supported for inclusion by this analysis were sleep, fatigue, tremor, mood, walking, memory, and dexterity. Items demonstrating a logical decrease in VAS score with each increasing severity level were sleep, memory, tremor, fatigue, and mood. Conclusion. This PBM will be critical for informing decisions about the cost-utility of PD treatments, guiding the resource allocation within our healthcare system. Future research will include cognitive debriefing with individuals with PD to refine item response options.
Correlation between the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Multiple Sclerosis: Recent Understanding and Potential Application Perspectives
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system, which causes demyelination and neuroaxonal damage. Low-grade systemic inflammation has been considered to lead to pathogenesis owing to the amplification of pathogenic immune response activation. However, there is a shortage of reliable systemic inflammatory biomarkers to predict the disease activity and progression of MS. In MS patients, a series of cytokines and chemokines promote the proliferation of neutrophils and lymphocytes and their transfer to the central nervous system. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which combines the information of the inherent and adaptive parts of the immune system, represents a reliable measure of the inflammatory burden. In this review, we aimed to discuss the inflammatory response in MS, mainly the function of lymphocytes and neutrophils, which can be implemented in the utility of NLR as a diagnostic tool in MS patients. The underlying pathophysiology is highlighted to identify new potential targets for neuroprotection and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.
Implication of High Body Fat Percentage on Migraine Chronification in Premenopausal Females
Background. Chronic migraine, being a debilitating headache disorder, needs assessment of the risk factors implicated in its occurrence. We investigated the potential role of obesity as a risk for chronic migraine in premenopausal females with episodic migraine. Methods. In this analytical study, body fat% was compared between episodic and chronic migraine patient groups. The standard criteria of the international classification of headache disorder were used for the diagnosis. Demographic data, clinical details of migraine, and anthropometric measurements were collected using structured questions and standardized techniques. Pearson’s correlation (r) was estimated to assess the concordance between body fat% and migraine frequency. High body fat%’s implication on chronic migraine which was adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and the use of oral contraceptives was determined using logistic regression analysis. Results. A total of 168 premenopausal female migraineurs, with a mean (Standard deviation) age of 33.0 (±9.0) years, were enrolled in the study. BMI and high body fat% were significantly associated with chronic migraine (). There was a weak positive, but significant, correlation between body fat% and migraine frequency (r = 0.185, ). The presence of high body fat was found to increase the risk of chronic migraine by 2.8 times (confidence interval 1.4–5.6; ). Conclusion. The amount of fat mass in the body relates to the clinical characteristics of migraine. There is an increased risk of developing chronic migraine in patients having high body fat. Weight control measures can be targeted for the prevention of migraine worsening.
Managing Chronic Neuropathic Pain: Recent Advances and New Challenges
Aim. Neuropathic pain affects 7–10% of the population, with most of the patients receiving inadequate and incomplete treatment. Owing to the high financial burden and the poor quality of life of the patients and their caretakers, there is a dire need to address the challenges in diagnosing and treating chronic neuropathic pain. Methods. This literature review was conducted to review novel treatments and related challenges through a systematic search from sources such as PubMed, Google Scholar with the combination of MESH words such as neuropathic pain, management of neuropathic pain. Articles from non-English literature, reports without human subjects, animal studies, and abstracts/posters were excluded. However, human studies and studies published in English were included. Result. This review article discusses novel treatment modalities while acknowledging the challenges medical workers face while encountering neuropathic pain. Despite the recent advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, several challenges still exist. Hence, there is still a need to explore the various treatment modalities, emphasizing the cause and underlying pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Conclusion. We recommend integrated multimodal treatment with the current treatment facility, including various medical disciplines. However, a personalized approach would work the best depending on the ’patient’s medical history. Therefore, this article recommends an integrated, cause-specific, cost-effective approach to address this problem of chronic neuropathic pain.
Heart Failure Status among Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients: A Hospital-Based Study
Background. Since heart failure (HF) and ischemic stroke have common risk factors, their concurrent occurrence is likely. Strokes in HF patients could be life-threatening and lead to severe disabilities, longer hospitalization time, and mortality. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of HF and its severity based on ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods. The present cross-sectional study included acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to Shahid Rajaei hospital in Karaj in 2020–2021. The diagnosis of HF was based on transthoracic echocardiography within 48 hours of symptom onset, and HF was classified into two groups: 41–49% as mildly reduced EF (HFmrEF) and ≤40% as reduced EF (HFrEF). Patients who did not complete cardiac studies were excluded. Results. 257 acute ischemic stroke patients (62.6% male) were included. Among stroke patients, the prevalence of HF, including HFrEF and HFmrEF, was 30.0% (95% CI: 21.4–38.6). HFmrEF and HFrEF was diagnosed in 32 (12.5%) and 45 (17.5%) patients, respectively. HF was significantly associated with older age, hypertension, past myocardial infarction (MI), and arrhythmia. A history of previous MI significantly increased the odds of heart failure (OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.82–5.81). Conclusion. There is a high prevalence of HF among acute ischemic stroke patients. Older patients with a history of hypertension and previous MI are at higher risk. Since patients with HF have a higher mortality and morbidity rate after experiencing an ischemic stroke, close cooperation between the neurology and cardiology specialists for providing advanced care for survivors is required.
Analysis of Induced Field in the Brain Tissue by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Halo-V Assembly Coil
As a noninvasive neuromodulation technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has already exhibited a great impact in clinical application and scientific research. This study presents a finite element method-based simulation of the Halo-V assembly (HVA) coil placed on the five-shell spherical human head model to examine the distributions of induced electric and magnetic fields. The performance of the designed HVA coil is evaluated by comparing the simulation results with the commercially available Halo-FO8 (HFA) assembly coil and standard single coils including the Halo and V coils. The simulation results indicate that the HVA coil shows an improved focality in terms of electric field distribution than the other single and assembly stimulation coils. Additionally, the effects of a magnetic shield plate and magnetic core on the designed HVA coil are investigated. Results indicate that the magnetic shield plate and magnetic core are proficient in further improving the stimulation focality. Therefore, the HVA TMS coil results in a safe and effective stimulation with enhanced focality of the target region as compared to the existing assembly coil.