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Neurology Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 735249, 18 pages
Research Article

Structural Angle and Power Images Reveal Interrelated Gray and White Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

1The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA
2Department of ECE, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
3Department of CSEE, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
4Department of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
5Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford, CT 06106, USA
6Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA

Received 24 February 2011; Revised 14 June 2011; Accepted 20 June 2011

Academic Editor: Patrice Peran

Copyright © 2012 Lai Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We present a feature extraction method to emphasize the interrelationship between gray and white matter and identify tissue distribution abnormalities in schizophrenia. This approach utilizes novel features called structural phase and magnitude images. The phase image indicates the relative contribution of gray and white matter, and the magnitude image reflects the overall tissue concentration. Three different analyses are applied to the phase and magnitude images obtained from 120 healthy controls and 120 schizophrenia patients. First, a single-subject subtraction analysis is computed for an initial evaluation. Second, we analyze the extracted features using voxel based morphometry (VBM) to detect voxelwise group differences. Third, source based morphometry (SBM) analysis was used to determine abnormalities in structural networks that co-vary in a similar way. Six networks were identified showing significantly lower white-to-gray matter in schizophrenia, including thalamus, right precentral-postcentral, left pre/post-central, parietal, right cuneus-frontal, and left cuneus-frontal sources. Interestingly, some networks look similar to functional patterns, such as sensory-motor and vision. Our findings demonstrate that structural phase and magnitude images can naturally and efficiently summarize the associated relationship between gray and white matter. Our approach has wide applicability for studying tissue distribution differences in the healthy and diseased brain.