Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Neurology Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 329364, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/329364
Review Article

Skin Matters: Identifying Pain Mechanisms and Predicting Treatment Outcomes

Department of Anesthesia, University of Otago, P.O. Box 4345, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand

Received 24 March 2013; Revised 26 April 2013; Accepted 1 May 2013

Academic Editor: Mamede de Carvalho

Copyright © 2013 Edward A. Shipton. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Irving, “The role of the skin in peripheral neuropathic pain,” European Journal of Pain Supplements, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 157–160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Maksimovic, Y. Baba, and E. A. Lumpkin, “Neurotransmitters and synaptic components in the Merkel cell-neurite complex, a gentle-touch receptor,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1279, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. J. A. McGrath and R. A. J. Eady, “Anatomy and organisation of human skin,” in Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, T. Burns, S. Breathnach, N. Cox, and C. Griffiths, Eds., Wiley-Blackwell, London, UK, 7th edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  4. E. S. Fernandes, M. A. Fernandes, and J. E. Keeble, “The functions of TRPA1 and TRPV1: moving away from sensory nerves,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 510–521, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Zhao, T. P. Barr, Q. Hou et al., “Voltage-gated sodium channel expression in rat and human epidermal keratinocytes: evidence for a role in pain,” Pain, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 90–105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Szolcsányi and E. Pintér, “Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 as a therapeutic target in analgesia,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  7. I. S. Ramsey, M. Delling, and D. E. Clapham, “An introduction to TRP channels,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 68, pp. 619–647, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. C. Kieseier, H. P. Hartung, and H. Wiendl, “Immune circuitry in the peripheral nervous system,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 437–445, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. R. Levinson, S. Luo, and M. A. Henry, “The role of sodium channels in chronic pain,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 155–165, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. R. D. Treede, T. S. Jensen, J. N. Campbell et al., “Neuropathic pain: redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 18, pp. 1630–1635, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Bouhassira, M. Lantéri-Minet, N. Attal, B. Laurent, and C. Touboul, “Prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics in the general population,” Pain, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 380–387, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Lauria, I. S. Merkies, and C. G. Faber, “Small fibre neuropathy,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 542–549, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. C. McArthur, “Painful small fiber neuropathies,” Continuum, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 106–125, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. J. G. Hoeijmakers, M. Bakkers, E. W. Blom et al., “Small fibre neuropathy: knowledge is power,” Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde, vol. 156, no. 7, p. A4224, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. R. H. Cook-Norris, M. M. Tollefson, A. E. Cruz-Inigo, P. Sandroni, M. D. P. Davis, and D. M. R. Davis, “Pediatric erythromelalgia: a retrospective review of 32 cases evaluated at Mayo Clinic over a 37-year period,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 416–423, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Han, A. M. Rush, S. D. Dib-Hajj et al., “Sporadic onset of erythermalgia: a gain-of-function mutation in Na v 1.7,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 553–558, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. Lauria and R. Lombardi, “Skin biopsy in painful and immune-mediated neuropathies,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 17, supplement 3, pp. 38–45, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. S. D. Dib-Hajj, Y. Yang, J. A. Black, and S. G. Waxman, “The Na (V)1. 7 sodium channel: from molecule to man,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 49–62, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. G. Lauria and R. Lombardi, “Small fiber neuropathy: is skin biopsy the holy grail,” Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 384–392, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. G. Devigili, V. Tugnoli, P. Penza et al., “The diagnostic criteria for small fibre neuropathy: from symptoms to neuropathology,” Brain, vol. 131, no. 7, pp. 1912–1925, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. S. Saperstein, T. D. Levine, M. Levine, and N. Hank, “Usefulness of skin biopsies in the evaluation and management of patients with suspected small fiber neuropathy,” The International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 38–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. D. Lacomis, “Small-fiber neuropathy,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 173–188, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. R. N. Harden, A. L. Oaklander, A. W. Burton et al., “Complex regional pain syndrome: practical diagnostic and treatment guidelines, 4th edition,” Pain Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 180–229, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. H. H. Krämer, “Immunological aspects of the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS),” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 18, no. 29, pp. 4546–4549, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Kharkar, Y. S. Venkatesh, J. R. Grothusen et al., “Skin biopsy in complex regional pain syndrome: case series and literature review,” Pain Physician, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 255–266, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. Marinus, G. L. Moseley, F. Birklein et al., “Clinical features and pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 637–648, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. H. Krämer, T. Eberle, N. Üeyler et al., “TNF-α in CRPS and “normal” trauma—Significant differences between tissue and serum,” Pain, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 285–290, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. S. Lewis and P. Schweinhardt, “Perceptions of the painful body: the relationship between body perception disturbance, pain and tactile discrimination in complex regional pain syndrome,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1320–1330, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Di Stefano, S. La Cesa, A. Biasiotta et al., “Laboratory tools for assessing neuropathic pain,” Neurological Sciences, vol. 33, supplement 1, pp. S5–S7, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. G. Cruccu, P. Anand, N. Attal et al., “EFNS guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 153–162, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. W. R. Kennedy, M. Nolano, G. Wendelschafer-Crabb et al., “A skin blister method to study epidermal nerves in peripheral nerve disease,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 360–371, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. B. G. McCarthy, S. T. Hsieh, A. Stocks et al., “Cutaneous innervation in sensory neuropathies: evaluation by skin biopsy,” Neurology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1848–1855, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. G. Lauria, M. Bakkers, C. Schmitz et al., “Intraepidermal nerve fiber density at the distal leg: a worldwide normative reference study,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 202–207, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Joint Task Force of the EFNS and the PNS and European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guideline on the Use of Skin Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Small Fiber Neuropathy, “Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 79–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Walk, G. Wendelschafer-Crabb, C. Davey, and W. R. Kennedy, “Concordance between epidermal nerve fiber density and sensory examination in patients with symptoms of idiopathic small fiber neuropathy,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 255, no. 1-2, pp. 23–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. N. Herrmann, M. P. McDermott, J. E. Sowden et al., “Is skin biopsy a predictor of transition to symptomatic HIV neuropathy? A longitudinal study,” Neurology, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 857–861, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. C. Gorson, D. N. Herrmann, R. Thiagarajan et al., “Non-length dependent small fibre neuropathy/ganglionopathy,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 163–169, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Gemignani, M. Giovanelli, F. Vitetta et al., “Non-length dependent small fiber neuropathy. A prospective case series,” Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Khan and L. Zhou, “Characterization of non-length-dependent small-fiber sensory neuropathy,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 45, pp. 86–91, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. E. Vlckova-Moravcova, J. Bednarik, J. Belobradkova, and C. Sommer, “Small-fibre involvement in diabetic patients with neuropathic foot pain,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 692–699, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. L. Pan, T. J. Tseng, Y. H. Lin et al., “Cutaneous innervation in Guillain-Barré syndrome: pathology and clinical correlations,” Brain, vol. 126, part 2, pp. 386–397, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. F. Wesseldijk, F. J. Huygen, C. Heijmans-Antonissen, S. P. Niehof, and F. J. Zijlstra, “Six years follow-up of the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2008, Article ID 469439, 7 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Parkitny, J. H. McAuley, F. Di Pietro et al., “Inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Neurology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 106–117, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. J. G. Groeneweg, F. J. Huygen, C. Heijmans-Antonissen, S. Niehof, and F. J. Zijlstra, “Increased endothelin-1 and diminished nitric oxide levels in blister fluids of patients with intermediate cold type complex regional pain syndrome type 1,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 7, p. 91, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Haanpää, N. Attal, M. Backonja et al., “NeuPSIG guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment,” Pain, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 14–27, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. M. M. Backonja, D. Walk, R. R. Edwards et al., “Quantitative sensory testing in measurement of neuropathic pain phenomena and other sensory abnormalities,” The Clinical Journal of Pain, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 641–647, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Garcia-Larrea, “Objective pain diagnostics: clinical neurophysiology,” Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 187–197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. E. A. Shipton, “New delivery systems for local anaesthetics,” Anesthesiology Research and Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 289373, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. S. M. Sammeta, S. R. K. Vaka, and S. N. Murthy, “Transdermal drug delivery enhanced by low voltage electropulsation (LVE),” Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 159–164, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. N. Murthy, S. M. Sammeta, and C. Bowers, “Magnetophoresis for enhancing transdermal drug delivery: mechanistic studies and patch design,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 197–203, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. E. A. Shipton, “New formulations of local anaesthetics,” Anesthesiology Research and Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 546409, 11 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. D. Bautista and D. Julius, “Fire in the hole: pore dilation of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 528–529, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. E. de Paula, C. M. S. Cereda, G. R. Tofoli, M. Franz-Montan, L. F. Fraceto, and D. R. De Araújo, “Drug delivery systems for local anesthetics,” Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23–34, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. E. Tam and A. D. Furlan, “Transdermal lidocaine and ketamine for neuropathic pain: a study of effectiveness and tolerability,” The Open Neurology Journal, vol. 6, pp. 58–64, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. A. B. O'Connor and R. H. Dworkin, “Treatment of neuropathic pain: an overview of recent guidelines,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 122, Supplement 10, pp. S22–S32, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  56. M. C. Rowbotham, P. S. Davies, C. Verkempinck, and B. S. Galer, “Lidocaine patch: double-blind controlled study of a new treatment method for post-herpetic neuralgia,” Pain, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. L. Zilliox and J. W. Russell, “Treatment of diabetic sensory polyneuropathy,” Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 143–159, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. Noto, M. Pappagallo, and A. Szallasi, “NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin dermal patch for lasting relief of peripheral neuropathic pain,” Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 702–710, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. R. Kennedy, G. F. Vanhove, S. P. Lu et al., “A randomized, controlled, open-label study of the long-term effects of NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, on epidermal nerve fiber density and sensory function in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Pain, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 579–587, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Derry, R. Lloyd, R. A. Moore, and H. J. McQuay, “Topical capsaicin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, p. CD007393, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Gaspar, M. Bovaira, F. J. Carrera-Hueso et al., “Efficacy of a topical treatment protocol with dimethyl sulfoxide 50% in type 1 complex regional pain syndrome,” Farmacia Hospitalaria, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 385–391, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. M. P. Flores, A. P. Castro, and J. S. Nascimento, “Topical analgesics,” Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 242–252, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  63. C. A. Heyneman, C. Lawless-Liday, and G. C. Wall, “Oral versus topical NSAIDs in rheumatic diseases: a comparison,” Drugs, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 555–574, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. M. Campbell, M. S. Kipnes, B. C. Stouch et al., “Randomized control trial of topical clonidine for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy,” Pain, vol. 153, no. 9, pp. 1815–1823, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. G. L. Moseley and K. Wiech, “The effect of tactile discrimination training is enhanced when patients watch the reflected image of their unaffected limb during training,” Pain, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 314–319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. L. Moseley, N. M. Zalucki, and K. Wiech, “Tactile discrimination, but not tactile stimulation alone, reduces chronic limb pain,” Pain, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 600–608, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus