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Neurology Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 9060751, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9060751
Research Article

Increased Serum Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Resistin, and Visfatin in the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

1Biochemistry Department, Medical School, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
4Centre for Stem Cell Biology (CSCB), Department of Biomedical Science, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
5Hyperlipidemia Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

Received 6 August 2016; Revised 27 October 2016; Accepted 3 November 2016

Academic Editor: Changiz Geula

Copyright © 2016 Mohammad Ali Ghaffari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex disorders where the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Several proinflammatory and immunoinflammatory disturbances have been observed in the etiology of ASD. There is, however, limited knowledge on variations of adipokines in ASD. The present study aimed to analyze the serum levels of resistin, visfatin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in children with ASD in relation to body weight, gender, and ASD severity level. Method. In total, 30 children with ASD (mean age:  y; range; 4–12 y) and 30 healthy children (mean age:  y; range: 4–12 y), including males and females, were matched for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Serum samples were collected, and visfatin, resistin, and TNF-α serum levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Result. Serum visfatin, resistin, and TNF-α levels in children with ASD were significantly higher than that in the healthy patients (). Two significant correlations were found: a correlation between resistin and visfatin with TNF-α in children with ASD (R = 0.8 and R = 0.62, resp.) and a correlation between resistin and visfatin in children with ASD (R = 0.66). Conclusion. Higher TNF-α, resistin, and visfatin levels were found in children with ASD in comparison with controls, suggesting that elevated levels of serum proinflammatory agents may be implicated in the pathophysiology of ASD.