Neurology Research International / 2021 / Article / Tab 3

Review Article

An Insight into the Current Understanding of Status Epilepticus: From Concept to Management

Table 3

Consolidated summary of SE and its types.

Sr. no.VariantDefinition and key featuresCausesDiagnosisTreatmentReference

(1)SESeizure that persists for a significant period of time and occurs frequently is termed SE
Exhibits high morbidity and low mortality rates
Imbalance at cellular level pathways operating in CNSEEGAntiseizure drugs
Anesthetic agents
[3, 10, 14]

(2)RSESE which is incurable with two antiseizure drugs of which benzodiazepine is the one and the seizure lasts for around 1–2 hours
Exhibits low mortality and high morbidity
Duration of SE
CNS infections
Massive stroke
Brain tumors
Comprehensive metabolic profile
Blood tests
Combination of antiepileptic drugs
Electroconvulsive therapy
Recurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
[1, 3, 10, 22]

(3)SRSESE that continues up to 24 hours or more even after the use of anesthetic therapy
Exhibits high mortality and morbidity
Duration of SE
CNS infections
Metabolic disorders
Cerebrospinal fluid tests
Blood tests
Immunomodulation therapies with immunoglobulins (IGs) and steroids
Plasma exchange
Epilepsy surgery
[10, 26]

(4)NORSEOccurs due to prolonged period of refractory seizures with no identifiable cause .
Exhibits high mortality and morbidity
Autoimmune disorders
Unidentified viral infections
Careful investigation of clinical history
Continuous EEG monitoring
Brain CT and MRI scan
Cerebrospinal fluid tests
Blood tests
Newer analogs of antiseizure drugs
Anesthetic agents
[10, 24, 27]

(5)FIRESSubjects experience a nonspecific febrile illness followed by the onset of seizure activity lasting around 1–2 weeks.
Exhibits high mortality and morbidity
Autoimmune
paraneoplastic syndrome
Careful investigation of clinical history
Prolonged EEG
Lumbar puncture
Blood tests
Genetic tests
MRI
Ketogenic diet
Cannabidiol
IGs (immunoglobulins)
Monoclonal antibodies
[10, 24, 25, 27]

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