Collaboration among Registered Nurses and Licensed Practical Nurses: A Scoping Review of Practice GuidelinesRead the full article
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The Face of Workplace Violence: Experiences of Healthcare Professionals in Surgical Hospital Wards
Background. Though workplace violence (WPV) is a global problem for healthcare professionals, research within in-hospital care has mainly focused on WPV in emergency healthcare settings. Thus, the number of qualitative studies that explores experiences of WPV in general hospital wards with a longer length of stay is limited. Aim. The aim of this study was to explore how healthcare professionals in surgical hospital wards experience and manage WPV perpetrated by patients or visitors. Method. The study applied a qualitative, inductive approach using focus group interviews for data collection. A purposeful sample of 16 healthcare professionals working in surgical wards was included. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis. Findings. The analysis resulted in four main themes: workplace violence characteristics, partly predictable yet not prevented, approaching workplace violence, and consequences from workplace violence. During the focus group interviews, the healthcare professionals described various acts of physical violence, verbal abuse, and gender discrimination perpetrated by patients or their visitors. Despite the predictability of some of the incidents, preventive strategies were absent or inadequate, with the healthcare professionals not knowing how to react in these threatful or violent situations. They experienced that WPV could result in negative consequences for the care of both the threatful or violent person and the other patients in the ward. WPV caused the healthcare professionals to feel exposed, scared, and unprotected. Conclusion and clinical implications. Exposure to WPV is a problem for healthcare professionals in surgical wards and has consequences for the patients. Preventive strategies, guidelines, and action plans are urgently needed to minimise the risk of WPV and to ensure a safe work and care environment.
Psychometric Properties of the Moore Index of Nutrition Self-Care in Arabic: A Study among Saudi Adolescents at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Background and Objective. The Moore Index of Nutrition Self-Care (MIN-SC) questionnaire has been used widely in both English and Spanish languages. The purpose of this study is to convert MIN-SC into the Arabic language and to test the translated tool for validity and reliability among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Method. The psychometric characteristics of MIN-SC were assessed using college freshman students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The validity and reliability were examined using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The construct validity was examined through principal component analysis. Results. The MIN-SC instrument was shown to be internally consistent with reliable scoring (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.910). Exploratory factor analysis resulted in 42 items loading on three main components: estimative, production, and transitional, with a factor loading of eigenvalues >2. The final model explained 38% of the variance. Conclusion. The Arabic version of MIN-SC was shown to be a valid and reliable tool for assessing attitude toward nutrition among adolescent students.
Expectation and Satisfaction with Nursing Care among Hypertensives Receiving Care at a Resource-Constrained Hospital in Ghana
Background. Hypertension accounts for a third of the global preventable premature deaths. In Sub-Saharan Africa, hypertension is the most rapidly increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the second leading cause of death. Proper management of hypertension requires adherence to management by patients and this is partly possible if patients feel satisfied with the nursing care they receive. Satisfaction with nursing care is only possible if there is a congruence between the expectations of care and the actual care received from nurses. Aim. We explored the expectations and satisfaction of Ghanaian hypertensives with nursing care received at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH). Methods. In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used to gather data about the lived experiences of patients with hypertension about nursing care. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among sixteen (16) patients with hypertension from the hypertensive Out-Patient Department (OPD) Clinics of the Medical Department at the KBTH. Only patients with history of previous admission(s) at the KBTH during the immediate past six months were purposively recruited. The respondents were interviewed about the nursing care received during their immediate past admission(s) at the KBTH using an IDI-guide. The IDIs were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed severally and thematic analysis was done. Nvivo 11 software was used to manage the data and aid with the thematic analysis. Results. The results of this study showed that Ghanaian hypertensive patients perceived nurses as key players in the management of patients. On the respondents’ expectations from nurses prior to their immediate past admissions at the KBTH, the data revealed the responsiveness of nurses to patient needs, prompt pain management, high confidentiality level of nurses, rendering of efficient health education, maintenance of therapeutic work environment, and ensuring effective communication as well as professional/ethical practice from the nurses. On the question of what made nursing care satisfying, it was observed from the respondents that they considered the competence of nurses, maintenance of therapeutic environment, and also effective handling of confidential information as determinants of their satisfaction with nursing care. Further, the respondents identified some key areas of dissatisfaction and these included the responsiveness of nurses to patient needs, prompt pain management, effectiveness of health education, and provision of culturally sensitive communication. Disproportionate distribution of nursing staff across the three nursing shifts, unethical practice among some nurses, inadequate resources for work, and low work morale of some nurses were identified as factors responsible for the gaps between patient expectations and actual care received. Conclusion. Our study concludes that continuous professional development programs for nurses should focus on the areas of dissatisfaction so as to improve care for hypertensives. We also recommend that nursing staff distribution across the various shifts should be of keen interest to nurse managers if hypertension care in particular and overall patient care in general are to improve.
Comparing Nursing Student Competence in CPR before and after a Pedagogical Intervention
Nursing students must be able to initiate and perform effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when they start their career in nursing. Studies show that students’ competency in CPR is deficient, indicating that better training is necessary during nursing education. This study reports on the differences in nursing students’ competence in CPR before and after a longitudinal pedagogical intervention across the curriculum. Changes in the curriculum were relocation and added testing of CPR skills, inclusion of a course in defibrillation, a knowledge test as stimuli before simulation, and more simulation practice with deteriorating patients. This was a comparative study between two cohorts of students in the bachelor in nursing education. We measured knowledge and compression performance in the students’ final year of education. Students in cohort 2, who received the pedagogical intervention, had a significant higher total knowledge score than students in cohort 1. Students’ mean depth and number of correct compressions was similar. Students in cohort 2 had a significantly higher mean rate of compressions, number of compressions per minute, and mean number of compressions with incorrect hand positions. Although the new curriculum afforded more hands-on practice of CPR, it was not enough to improve the students’ performance to match the demands set out in national and international guidelines.
Improving Clinical Nurses’ Development of Supervision Skills through an Action Learning Approach
The aim of this study was to investigate action learning as an implementation method in a large-scale project with many participants in several autonomous and geographically spread groups. The focus of the implementation was the Model of Practical Skill Performance as a learning and supervision tool in the clinical education of nursing students. Nineteen action learning groups were established, and a total of 129 clinical supervisors and 13 facilitators were involved. To evaluate the implementation process, qualitative data were generated through three focus group interviews, questionnaires, and notes. Data illuminate clinical supervisors’ perceptions of value, impact, and sustainability when they participate in an action learning group to become familiar with the Model of Practical Skill Performance. The deductive data analysis was guided by central concepts from action learning. Action learning proved to be an engaging and effective tool in the implementation where the main strength seemed to be the autonomous local group supporting collective reflections on actions. Clinical supervisors had the right competences to adopt a reflective process-oriented approach, which is the hallmark of action learning. This study shows the necessity of collaboration between stakeholders in practice, education, and management to implement large-scale projects in clinical practice. The findings imply that managers should choose participants on the basis of their motivation and their voluntary wish to participate and that nurses’ immersion in the project over time aids implementation.
First-Time Mothers Have a Desire to Be Offered Professional Breastfeeding Support by Pediatric Nurses: An Evaluation of the Mother-Perceived-Professional Support Scale
Background. Although the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, the rate of breastfeeding has decreased worldwide. Breastfeeding is the natural way of feeding a baby, but it is a process that has to be learnt. It is not unusual for problems to occur and hence support for breastfeeding is vital. The aim of this study was to explore first-time mothers’ experiences of the breastfeeding support offered by pediatric nurses, as well as to develop and evaluate the Mother Perceived Support from Professionals (MoPPS) scale. Methods. A qualitative design involving both inductive and deductive approaches was chosen. Nine first-time mothers were interviewed regarding their experiences of the breastfeeding support offered by pediatric nurses. Semistructured interviews were conducted. The mothers were also asked to grade their experiences of breastfeeding support on the MoPPS scale. A qualitative content analysis was applied when analyzing the data obtained using both the inductive (interviews) and deductive (MoPPS scale) approaches. Results. The results revealed that the mothers felt the desire to breastfeed, although they all experienced some difficulties. They wanted the pediatric nurses to be perceptive and provide professional support based on their own experiences. When the pediatric nurses took time and booked extra appointments, the mothers felt supported. The inductive analysis resulted in one theme: “When wanting to breastfeed, mothers have a desire to be offered professional breastfeeding support”. Two main categories were identified, namely “Mothers wanted but lacked breastfeeding support” and “Mothers received professional support.” The deductive analysis of the MoPPS scale showed similar results, and the questions were perceived as relevant to the aim. The mothers considered it important that the pediatric nurses had sufficient knowledge about breastfeeding. It was also considered important that the pediatric nurses involved the mothers’ partners in the breastfeeding support. Therefore, we suggest that these areas should be included in the MoPPS scale for pediatric nurses. Conclusions. The MoPPS scale can be a useful tool for helping pediatric nurses to offer mothers professional breastfeeding support. Indeed, when offering breastfeeding support, pediatric nurses can use the items included on the MoPPS scale as guidance.