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Nursing Research and Practice
Volume 2014, Article ID 218069, 9 pages
Research Article

Changes in Transformational Leadership and Empirical Quality Outcomes in a Finnish Hospital over a Two-Year Period: A Longitudinal Study

1Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
2Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
3University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland

Received 3 February 2014; Accepted 16 May 2014; Published 10 June 2014

Academic Editor: Kathleen Finlayson

Copyright © 2014 Raija Mäntynen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper describes the changes in transformational leadership and quality outcomes that occurred between 2008 and 2011 in a Finnish university hospital that is aiming to meet the Magnet standards. Measurements were conducted in 2008-2009 and subsequently in 2010-2011 by surveying nursing staff and patients. Nursing staff were surveyed using web-based surveys to collect data on transformational leadership (, ) and patient safety culture (, ) and using both postal and web-based surveys to gather information on job satisfaction (, ). Questionnaires were used to collect data on care satisfaction from patients (, ). Transformational leadership was measured using the 54-item TLS, job satisfaction with the 37-item KUHJSS, patient safety culture with the 42-item HSPSC, and patient satisfaction using the 42-item RHCS questionnaire. Transformational leadership, which was the weakest area, was at the same level between the two measurement occasions. Job satisfaction scores increased between 2008 and 2010, although they were generally excellent in 2008. The scores for nonpunitive responses to errors and events reported were also higher in the 2010-2011 surveys. The highest empirical outcome scores related to patient satisfaction. The project and the development initiatives undertaken since 2008 seem to have had positive effects on empirical quality outcomes.