Table 2: The instruments, subscales, and numbers of variables in the transformational leadership, job satisfaction, patient safety culture, and patient satisfaction surveys.

InstrumentsTransformational Leadership Scale (TLS)Kuopio University Hospital Job Satisfaction Scale (KUHJSS)Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC)Revised Humane Caring Scale (RHCS)

Subscales (number of variables)Ethical leadership (14)
Management of the nursing process (16)
Giving feedback and rewarding (6)
Support to professional development (7)
Nursing director (11)
Leadership (7)
Working environment (4)
Sense of community (4)
Requiring factors of the work (8)
Participation in decision-making (4)
Motivating factors of the work (6)
Working welfare (4)
Teamwork within units (4)
Teamwork across units (4)
Communication openness (3)
Handoffs and transitions (4)
Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety (4)
Management support for patient safety (3)
Staffing (4)
Organizational learning-continuous improvement (3)
Overall perceptions of patient safety (4)
Feedback and communication about error (3)
Nonpunitive response to error (3)
Frequency of events reported (3)
Professional practice (17)
Information and participation in own care (11)
Cognition of physical needs (4)
Human resources (3)
Pain and apprehension management (4)
Interdisciplinary collaboration (3)
Number of background variables1011816