Table 3: Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and patient safety culture scores in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011. Scores range from 1 to 5, with 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest. Differences between the two survey periods were considered significant if < 0.05.

Year, mean (SD) Year, mean (SD) value

Transformational leadership2008 ( ) 2010 ( )
 Ethical leadership3.52 (1.08)3.63 (1.04)
 Management of the nursing process3.43 (0.87)3.43 (0.88)
 Giving feedback and rewarding3.01 (1.04)3.07 (1.00)
 Support to professional development3.72 (0.96)3.78 (0.97)
 Nursing director3.01 (0.94)2.99 (0.91)
 Transformational leadership3.34 (0.87) 3.39 (0.85)
Job satisfaction2008 ( ) 2010 ( )
 Leadership3.75 (0.87)3.86 (0.91)0.001
 Working environment3.28 (0.88)3.28 (0.95)
 Sense of community3.70 (0.74)3.76 (0.80)0.030
 Requiring factors of the work3.04 (0.78)3.16 (0.76)0.001
 Participation in decision-making3.34 (0.83)3.44 (0.84)0.007
 Motivating factors of the work4.23 (0.58)4.27 (0.60)0.032
 Working welfare4.14 (0.61)4.19 (0.57)0.007
 Job satisfaction3.64 (0.53) 3.71 (0.56)
Patient safety culture2008 ( ) 2011 ( )
 Teamwork within units3.71 (0.69)3.69 (0.66)
 Teamwork across units3.53 (0.57)3.29 (0.63)<0.001
 Communication openness3.64 (0.61)3.59 (0.58)
 Handoffs and transitions3.27 (0.60)3.03 (0.65)<0.001
 Manager expectations and actions3.69 (0.73)3.68 (0.74)
 Management support for patient safety3.13 (0.79)3.08 (0.77)
 Staffing3.19 (0.80)3.16 (0.85)
 Organizational learning-continuous 3.48 (0.61)3.42 (0.58)
 improvement
 Overall perceptions of patient safety3.08 (0.83)3.14 (0.76)
 Feedback and communication about error3.14 (0.73)3.15 (0.70)
 Nonpunitive response to error3.41 (0.73)3.48 (0.71)
 Frequency of events reported3.12 (0.95)3.26 (0.92)
 Patient safety culture3.38 (0.46) 3.33 (0.44)