Nursing Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Knowledge and Attitude towards Exclusive Breast Feeding among Mothers Attending Antenatal and Immunization Clinic at Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. To assess knowledge and attitude towards exclusive breast feeding among mothers attending antenatal care and immunization clinic in Dabat Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. Methodology. Institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The data was collected by using pretested, structured interview based questionnaires. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result. A total of 384 participants were included in the study with a response rate of 100%. The majority were in the age groups of 20–30 (66.9%) and the mean age was 27.65; 325 (84.6%) were Orthodox Christianity followers. Majority were of Amhara ethnicity 370 (96.4%). Based on knowledge score, 268 (69.8%) were grouped as having good knowledge and regarding attitudinal score, 92 (24%) of the study participants were categorized as having negative attitude towards exclusive breast feeding (EBF) and the remaining 292 (76%) were categorized as having positive attitude. Conclusion. In this study, the knowledge of study participant mothers towards EBF is low which is less than three-fourths; however positive attitude towards EBF is more than three-fourths in this study. The authors recommend that health care workers who work in the areas of maternal and child health clinic should give appropriate information about EBF. Mulugeta Wassie Alamirew, Netsanet Habte Bayu, Nigusie Birhan Tebeje, and Selam Fiseha Kassa Copyright © 2017 Mulugeta Wassie Alamirew et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Practice, and Associated Factors of Home-Based Management of Diarrhea among Caregivers of Children Attending Under-Five Clinic in Fagita Lekoma District, Awi Zone, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016 Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. In Ethiopia, it is the second cause for clinical presentation among under five-year child population. Objective. The main aim of this study was to assess knowledge, practice, and associated factors of home-based management of diarrhea among caregivers of children attending the under-five clinic. Methods. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out from March 1, 2016, to April 22, 2016. Results. Two hundred eight (56.2%) of them had good knowledge and one hundred thirty-nine (37.6%) of them had the good practice of home management of diarrhea, specifically, primary education (AOR: 5.384, 95% CI: 2.008, 14.438), secondary and above education (AOR: 11.769, 95% CI: 3.527, 39.275), daily laborer (AOR: 0.208, 95% CI: 0.054, 0.810), and no information about diarrhea (AOR: 0.139, 95% CI: 0.054, 0.354). Moreover, age range of 25–35 (AOR: 4.091, 95% CI: 1.741, 9.616) and 36–45 (AOR: 3.639, 95% CI: 1.155, 11.460), being single (AOR: 0.111, 95% CI: 0.013, 0.938), being divorced (AOR: 0.120, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.598), illiteracy (AOR: 0.052, 95% CI: 0.017, 0.518), primary education (AOR: 0.143, CI: 0.046, 0.440), and no information about diarrhea (AOR: 0.197, 95% CI: 0.057, 0.685) were significantly associated variables with the outcome variables in multivariate regression. Conclusion. Caregivers had slightly adequate knowledge but poor practice. Bogale Kassahun Desta, Nega Tezera Assimamaw, and Tesfaye Demeke Ashenafi Copyright © 2017 Bogale Kassahun Desta et al. All rights reserved. The Criterion Validity, Reliability, and Feasibility of an Instrument for Assessing the Nursing Intensity in Perioperative Settings Mon, 17 Jul 2017 06:35:28 +0000 Patient classification systems generate information for staff allocation based on a patient’s care needs. This study aims to test further the instrument for assessing nursing intensity (NI) in perioperative settings. Nine operating departments from five university hospitals were involved. The perioperative nurses gathered data from patients () representing different fields of surgery. Reliability was tested by parallel classifications (). Also, the users’ () opinions were surveyed. The results support the predictive validity and interrater reliability of the instrument. The nurses considered the instrument feasible to use. The patients’ low ASA class did not automatically signify low NI; however, high ASA class was more frequently associated with high intraoperative NI. Intraoperative NI indicated the length of the postanaesthesia care and the type of the follow-up unit. Parallel classifications ensured the homogenous use of the instrument. The use of the instrument is recommended. Satu Rauta, Sanna Salanterä, Tero Vahlberg, and Kristiina Junttila Copyright © 2017 Satu Rauta et al. All rights reserved. Midwives’ Role in Providing Nutrition Advice during Pregnancy: Meeting the Challenges? A Qualitative Study Sun, 02 Jul 2017 08:40:05 +0000 This study explored the Australian midwives’ role in the provision of nutrition advice. Little is known about their perceptions of this role, the influence of the model of care, and the barriers and facilitators that may influence them providing quality nutrition advice to pregnant women. Semistructured telephone interviews were undertaken with a subsample () of the members of the Australian College of Midwives who participated in an online survey about midwives’ nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and their confidence in providing nutrition advice during pregnancy. Thematic descriptive analysis was used to analyse the data. Midwives believed they have a vital role in providing nutrition advice to pregnant women in the context of health promotion. However, this was not reflected in the advice many of them provided, which in many accounts was passive and medically directed. The extent and efficacy of their role appear to be challenged by many structural barriers. Midwives suggested facilitators that may assist in overcoming these challenges. Midwives need assistance, support, and guidance to provide holistic nutrition advice that assists women to achieve healthy pregnancies. A collaborative approach between midwifery bodies, nutrition and education experts, and maternity care services may provide an effective way forward. Jamila Arrish, Heather Yeatman, and Moira Williamson Copyright © 2017 Jamila Arrish et al. All rights reserved. The Learning Preferences among Nursing Students in the King Saud University in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Tue, 23 May 2017 09:41:18 +0000 Objective. The present study aimed to identify the most common learning preferences among the nursing students in Saudi Arabia and to investigate the associations of certain demographic variables with the learning preferences. Methods. All the undergraduate nursing students in the nursing college were requested to participate in this descriptive cross-sectional study. An Arabic version of the Felder-Silverman learning style model (FSLSM) questionnaire was used to examine the learning preferences among undergraduate nursing students. Results. A total of 56 (43%) completed questionnaires were included in the final analysis. Results of the present study indicate that the most common learning preferences among the nursing students were visual (67.9%), followed by active (50%) and sequential (37.5%) learning preferences. The verbal style was the least common learning preference (3.6%) among the nursing students. There was no association between gender and learning preferences (). Conclusion. The present study concluded that the visual, active, and sequential styles are the commonest learning preferences among the nursing students. The nursing educators should emphasize the use of this information in their teaching methods to improve learning skills among the nursing students. Homood A. Alharbi, Adel F. Almutairi, Eyad M. Alhelih, and Abdualrahman S. Alshehry Copyright © 2017 Homood A. Alharbi et al. All rights reserved. Anxiety in Cancer Patients during 18F-FDG PET/CT Low Dose: A Comparison of Anxiety Levels before and after Imaging Studies Tue, 14 Mar 2017 08:58:17 +0000 Objective. Assessing the level of anxiety in oncology patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and identifying the main reasons that generate anxiety. Material and Method. The study included 81 cancer patients submitted to the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Patients filled in the Scan Experience Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan. Results. Substantial levels of anxiety were detected both before and after 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan (STAI mean > 30), with a significant increase in the state of anxiety after scan performance (, = 31.1, and = 33.0). 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose results are the main cause of anxiety both before (79.1%) and after (86.9%) the scan. The information provided by staff both before and on the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose day was classified mostly as completely understandable (70.5% and 75.3%, resp.) and as very useful (70.5% and 72.6%, resp.) and correlated positively with patients’ overall satisfaction with NM Department (, and , p = 0.000, resp.), but not with anxiety levels. Conclusions. Patients perceive high levels of anxiety during the 18F-FDG PET/CT low dose scan and the concern with scan results was pointed out as the main factor for that emotional reaction. Ana Grilo, Lina Vieira, Elisabete Carolino, Cátia Oliveira, Carolina Pacheco, Maria Castro, and Juan Alonso Copyright © 2017 Ana Grilo et al. All rights reserved. Faculty Perceptions of Online Teaching Effectiveness and Indicators of Quality Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:19:26 +0000 Online education programs in nursing are increasing rapidly. Faculty need to be competent in their role and possess the skills necessary to positively impact student outcomes. Existing research offers effective teaching strategies for online education; however, there may be some disconnect in the application of these strategies and faculty perceptions of associated outcomes. Focus groups were formed to uncover how nursing faculty in an online program define and describe teaching effectiveness and quality indicators in an asynchronous online environment. A semistructured interview format guided group discussion. Participants included nurse educators from an online university with an average of 15 years of experience teaching in nursing academia and 6 years in an online environment. Teaching effectiveness, indicators of quality, and student success were three categories that emerged from the analysis of data. What materialized from the analysis was an overarching concept of a “dance” that occurs in the online environment. Effective online teachers facilitate, connect, lead, and work in synchrony with students to obtain indicators of quality such as student success, student improvement over time, and student application of knowledge to the professional role. Christine Frazer, Debra Henline Sullivan, Deborah Weatherspoon, and Leslie Hussey Copyright © 2017 Christine Frazer et al. All rights reserved. Nurses and Physicians Attitudes toward Nurse-Physician Collaboration: A Survey from Gaza Strip, Palestine Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Interprofessional collaboration and teamwork between nurses and physicians is essential for improving patient outcomes and quality of health services. This study examined the attitudes of nurses and physicians toward nurse-physician collaboration. A cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses and physicians () in two main referral public hospitals in the Gaza Strip using the Arabic Jefferson Scale of Attitude toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration. Descriptive statistics and difference of means, proportions, and correlations were examined using Student’s -test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation and was considered as statistical significant. Response rate was 42.8% (75.6% for nurses and 24.4% for physicians). Nurses expressed more positives attitudes toward collaboration than physicians (M ± SD on four-point scale: and , resp.) and experience duration was not proved to have an interesting influence. Teamwork approach in the professional practice should be recognized taking into consideration that the relationship between physicians and nurses is complementary and nurses are partners in patient care. Aymen Elsous, Mahmoud Radwan, and Samah Mohsen Copyright © 2017 Aymen Elsous et al. All rights reserved. Aggression from Patients or Next of Kin and Exposure to Bullying Behaviors: A Conglomerate Experience? Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Although workplace violence and aggression have been identified as important stressors in the nursing profession, studies simultaneously comparing patient-initiated aggression and exposure to bullying behaviors at work are rather scarce. The aim of this study was to compare aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors in terms of prevalence, health-related quality of life outcomes, and potential overlap in those targeted. In the period of 2008-2009, data were collected among 2059 members of the Norwegian Nurses Organization. Latent class (LC) analysis and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the proposed relationships. The results showed that aggression from patients or next of kin and exposure to bullying behaviors were perceived as separate and independent stressors. Although aggression from patients or next of kin was more frequent than workplace bullying, the latter was the only significant stressor related to health-related quality of life in terms of reduced mental health functioning. Although being a rather infrequent experience, exposure to bullying behaviors seems to have more severe health-related outcomes for nurses than aggression from patients or next of kin. Hence, the results of the study strengthen previous findings and suggest that managers must aim to maintain a positive psychosocial work environment with zero-tolerance for bullying. Iselin Reknes, Guy Notelaers, Nils Magerøy, Ståle Pallesen, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Bente Elisabeth Moen, and Ståle Einarsen Copyright © 2017 Iselin Reknes et al. All rights reserved. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan Mon, 06 Feb 2017 07:38:56 +0000 Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses’ knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland () and Japan () were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses’ knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment. Kayoko Suzuki, Eija Paavilainen, Mika Helminen, Aune Flinck, Natsuko Hiroyama, Taiko Hirose, Noriko Okubo, and Motoko Okamitsu Copyright © 2017 Kayoko Suzuki et al. All rights reserved. Comparing Intravenous Insertion Instructional Methods with Haptic Simulators Sun, 29 Jan 2017 08:30:24 +0000 Objective. The objective of this review was to compare traditional intravenous (IV) insertion instructional methods with the use of haptic IV simulators. Design. An integrative research design was used to analyze the current literature. Data Sources. A search was conducted using key words intravenous (IV) insertion or cannulation or venipuncture and simulation from 2000 to 2015 in the English language. The databases included Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Complete, Education Resource Information Center, and Medline. Review Methods. Whittemore and Knafl’s (2005) strategies were used to critique the articles for themes and similarities. Results. Comparisons of outcomes between traditional IV instructional methods and the use of haptic IV simulators continue to show various results. Positive results indicate that the use of the haptic IV simulator decreases both band constriction and total procedure time. While students are satisfied with practicing on the haptic simulators, they still desire faculty involvement. Conclusion. Combining the haptic IV simulator with practical experience on the IV arm may be the best practice for learning IV insertion. Research employing active learning strategies while using a haptic IV simulator during the learning process may reduce cost and faculty time. Lenora A. McWilliams and Ann Malecha Copyright © 2017 Lenora A. McWilliams and Ann Malecha. All rights reserved. Effects of Father-Neonate Skin-to-Skin Contact on Attachment: A Randomized Controlled Trial Tue, 17 Jan 2017 06:45:59 +0000 This study examines how skin-to-skin contact between father and newborn affects the attachment relationship. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital and a maternity clinic in northern Taiwan. The study recruited 83 first-time fathers aged 20 years or older. By block randomization, participants were allocated to an experimental () or a control () group. With the exception of skin-to-skin contact (SSC), participants from each group received the same standard care. Both groups also received an Early Childcare for Fathers nursing pamphlet. During the first three days postpartum, the intervention group members were provided a daily SSC intervention with their respective infants. Each intervention session lasted at least 15 minutes in length. The outcome measure was the Father-Child Attachment Scale (FCAS). After adjusting for demographic data, the changes to the mean FCAS were found to be significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. We recommend that nurses and midwives use instructional leaflets and demonstrations during postpartum hospitalization, encouraging new fathers to take an active role in caring for their newborn in order to enhance father-neonate interactions and establish parental confidence. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number NCT02886767. Er-Mei Chen, Meei-Ling Gau, Chieh-Yu Liu, and Tzu-Ying Lee Copyright © 2017 Er-Mei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study Mon, 16 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants () reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% () reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. Christina Murphey, Patricia Carter, Larry R. Price, Jane Dimmitt Champion, and Francine Nichols Copyright © 2017 Christina Murphey et al. All rights reserved. Breastfeeding Supports and Services in Rural Hawaii: Perspectives of Community Healthcare Workers Wed, 11 Jan 2017 08:10:08 +0000 Background. In the state of Hawaii, breastfeeding initiation rates are higher than the national average but fall below target rates for duration. Accessing breastfeeding support services is challenging for mothers living in rural areas of the state. Healthcare workers (HCWs) working with mothers and infants are in a key position to encourage and support breastfeeding efforts. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of a Hawaiian community’s (specifically Hilo, Hawai‘i) breastfeeding service and support issues. Method. The qualitative study design utilized was a focused ethnography. This approach was used to gather data from participant HCWs () about their individual or shared experience(s) about the breastfeeding supports and services available in their community. An iterative process of coding and categorizing the data followed by conceptual abstraction into patterns was completed. Results. Three patterns emerged from the qualitative interviews: Operating within Constraints of the Particular Environment, Coexisting Messages, and Process Interrupted. Participants identified a number of gaps in breastfeeding services available to their clients including the lack of available lactation consultants and the inconsistent communication between hospital and community providers. A number of implications for practice and further research were suggested within the results and are discussed. Jeanie L. Flood Copyright © 2017 Jeanie L. Flood. All rights reserved. Psychometric Properties of the Family Inventory of Resources for Management in a Sample of Iranian Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients Thu, 29 Dec 2016 13:31:13 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Family Inventory of Resources for Management (FIRM) in a sample of family caregivers of cancer patients. Methods. In this methodological study, construct validity of the FIRM was evaluated by known groups and convergent validity in a convenience sample of family caregivers of cancer patients () referred to the outpatient oncology wards of five educational hospitals in Tehran from January to April 2016. Reliability was determined by assessing the internal consistency and stability of the instrument. Results. The known-groups findings showed that there is a significant difference between the scores of the FIRM in family caregivers with different levels of caregiver burden (). Also, the results of convergent validity showed that there is a moderate negative correlation (; ) between the total scores of the FIRM and the scores of the caregiver burden inventory (CBI). The FIRM showed a good internal consistency () and a good stability of the test-retest reliability result. Conclusions. There is a sound psychometric basis for the use of the Persian translation of the FIRM for family studies in the Iranian population. Seyed Reza Mirsoleymani, Camelia Rohani, Mahsa Matbouei, Malihe Nasiri, and Parvaneh Vasli Copyright © 2016 Seyed Reza Mirsoleymani et al. All rights reserved. Attitudes and Behaviours of Health Workers and the Use of HIV/AIDS Health Care Services Wed, 28 Dec 2016 09:29:31 +0000 Background. This article discusses how health workers relate to and communicate with clients of VCT and ART treatment. It also looks at how health worker practices in the form of attitudes and behaviours towards clients influence the use of these services. Methods. In-depth interviews, informal conversations, and participant observation were used to collect data from health workers providing VCT and ART and clients who access these services in two Ghanaian hospitals. Results. The study found that health workers providing these services, with the exception of a few, generally showed positive attitudes and behaviours towards clients during clinical encounters. Health workers warmly received clients to the facilities, addressing clients with courtesy, advising clients on a wide range of issues, sometimes supporting clients financially, and comfortably interacting with them. This is contrary to the findings of most studies in the literature that health workers often do not communicate and relate to these patients well. Conclusion. It concludes that dealing with clients well during interactions in the centres and clinics is crucial for reducing the perceived stigma associated with the use of services and increasing use as part of the national effort to reduce the infection rate of the disease in Ghana. Jonathan M. Dapaah Copyright © 2016 Jonathan M. Dapaah. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Quality of Life and Care Needs of Turkish Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Mon, 26 Dec 2016 05:53:41 +0000 This descriptive study explored the quality of life and care needs of Turkish patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study sample consisted of 100 hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Their quality of life was assessed using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant Scale. The mean patient age was 44.99 ± 13.92 years. Changes in sexual functions, loss of hair, loss of taste, loss of appetite, and sleep disturbances were the most common symptoms. The quality of life of transplant patients was moderately affected; the functional well-being and social/family well-being subscales were the most adversely and least negatively affected (12.13 ± 6.88) dimensions, respectively. Being female, being between 50 and 59 years of age, being single, having a chronic disease, and having a history of hospitalization were associated with lower quality of life scores. Interventions to improve functional status, physical well-being, and emotional status of patients during the transplantation process may help patients cope with treatment-related impairments more effectively. Frequent screening and management of patient symptoms in order to help patients adapt to life following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are crucial for meeting care needs and developing strategies to improve their quality of life. Neslisah Yasar and Semiha Akin Copyright © 2016 Neslisah Yasar and Semiha Akin. All rights reserved. From Blank Canvas to Masterwork: Creating a Professional Practice Model at a Magnet Hospital Tue, 20 Dec 2016 11:27:49 +0000 Objective. The purpose of this study was to engage registered nurses (RNs) in the creation of a Professional Practice Model (PPM). Background. PPMs are essential as the philosophical underpinnings for nursing practice. The study institution created a new PPM utilizing the voice of their RNs. Methods. Qualitative inquiry with focus groups was conducted to explore RNs values and beliefs about their professional practice. Constant-comparative analysis was used to code data and identify domains. Results. The 92 RN participants represented diverse roles and practice settings. The four domains identified were caring, knowing, navigating, and leading. Conclusions. Nurse leaders face the challenge of assisting nurses in articulating their practice using a common voice. In this study, nurses described their identity, their roles, and how they envisioned nursing should be practiced. The results align with the ANCC Magnet® Model, ANA standards, and important foundational and organization specific documents. Lynda J. Dimitroff, Donna M. Tydings, Sue Nickoley, Lynn W. Nichols, and Maureen E. Krenzer Copyright © 2016 Lynda J. Dimitroff et al. All rights reserved. Attitudes Regarding Participation in a Diabetes Screening Test among an Assyrian Immigrant Population in Sweden Mon, 19 Dec 2016 13:28:39 +0000 Immigrants from the Middle East have higher prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with native Swedes. The aim of the study was to describe and understand health beliefs in relation to T2D as well as attitudes regarding participation in a screening process in a local group of Assyrian immigrants living in Sweden. A qualitative and quantitative method was chosen in which 43 individuals participated in a health check-up and 13 agreed to be interviewed. Interviews were conducted, anthropometric measurements and blood tests were collected, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. In total, 13 of the 43 participants were diagnosed with impaired glucose metabolism, 4 of these 13 had TD2. The interviewed participants perceived that screening was an opportunity to discover more about their health and to care for themselves and their families. Nevertheless, they were not necessarily committed to taking action as a consequence of the screening. Instead, they professed that their health was not solely in their own hands and that they felt safe that God would provide for them. Assyrians’ background and religion affect their health beliefs and willingness to participate in screening for TD2. Susanne Andersson, Veronika Karlsson, Louise Bennet, Klas Fellbrant, and Margareta Hellgren Copyright © 2016 Susanne Andersson et al. All rights reserved. Use of Action Research in Nursing Education Sun, 18 Dec 2016 13:46:23 +0000 Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe action research in nursing education and to propose a definition of action research for providing guidelines for research proposals and criteria for assessing potential publications for nursing higher education. Methods. The first part of this project involved a search of the literature on action research in nursing higher education from 1994 to 2013. Searches were conducted in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Applying the criteria identified, 80 publications were reviewed. The second part of the project involved a literature review of action research methodology from several disciplines to assist in assessing articles in this review. Results. This article summarizes the nursing higher education literature reviewed and provides processes and content related to four topic areas in nursing higher education. The descriptions assist researchers in learning more about the complexity of both the action research process and the varied outcomes. The literature review of action research in many disciplines along with the review of action research in higher education provided a framework for developing a nursing-education-centric definition of action research. Conclusions. Although guidelines for developing action research and criteria for publication are suggested, continued development of methods for synthesizing action research is recommended. Susan D. Moch, R. Todd Vandenbark, Shelley-Rae Pehler, and Angela Stombaugh Copyright © 2016 Susan D. Moch et al. All rights reserved. The Staff Nurse Clinical Leader at the Bedside: Swedish Registered Nurses’ Perceptions Sun, 04 Dec 2016 12:44:30 +0000 Registered nurses at the bedside are accountable for and oversee completion of patient care as well as directly leading and managing the provision of safe patient care. These nurses have an informal leadership role that is not associated with any given position. Leadership is a complex and multifaceted concept and its meaning is unclear, especially in the staff nurse context. The aim was to describe registered nurses’ perceptions of what it entails to be the leader at the bedside in inpatient physical care. A phenomenographic approach was employed. Interviews were performed with Swedish registered nurses (). Five descriptive categories were identified: demonstrating clinical knowledge, establishing a good atmosphere of collaboration, consciously structuring the work in order to ensure patients’ best possible nursing care, customized presence in the practical work with patients according to predetermined prerequisites, and monitoring coworkers’ professional practice. Registered nurses informal role as leader necessitates a social process of deliberate effort to attain and maintain leader status and authority. Participants used deliberate communicative approaches and interactive procedures. Leader principles grounded in the core values of the nursing profession that ensure nursing values and person-centered attributes were a key aspect. Inga E. Larsson and Monika J. M. Sahlsten Copyright © 2016 Inga E. Larsson and Monika J. M. Sahlsten. All rights reserved. Assessing Nurses Knowledge of Glasgow Coma Scale in Emergency and Outpatient Department Thu, 01 Dec 2016 11:30:02 +0000 Assessment of level of consciousness using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a tool requiring knowledge that is important in detecting early deterioration in a patient’s level of consciousness. Critical thinking used with the skill and knowledge in assessing the GCS is the foundation of all nursing practice. This study aims to explore the knowledge and competence in assessing the GCS among staff nurses working in the Emergency and Outpatient Departments. This is a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design using the GCS Knowledge Questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used. Nurses in these Departments were asked to partake in the survey. Data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive and Pearson’s chi square was used. Result showed that 55.56% of nurses had poor knowledge followed by 41.48% and 2.96% with satisfactory knowledge and good knowledge, respectively. The result on the association between knowledge and education level showed a significant association between the two variables (, df = 3, , and ). There was also a significant correlation between knowledge and age group (, df = 2, , and ). Overall, this study supports that good knowledge and skill are important in assessing GCS level. Harvinderjit Kaur a/p Basauhra Singh, Mei Chan Chong, Hari Chandran a/l Thambinayagam, Mohd Idzwan bin Zakaria, Siew Ting Cheng, Li Yoong Tang, and Nurul Hafizan Azahar Copyright © 2016 Harvinderjit Kaur a/p Basauhra Singh et al. All rights reserved. Caregivers Lack of Disclosure Skills Delays Disclosure to Children with Perinatal HIV in Resource-Limited Communities: Multicenter Qualitative Data from South Africa and Botswana Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:10:08 +0000 To promote the appropriate implementation of procedures for health disclosure to children, it is important to understand the reasons why caregivers delay the disclosure of healthcare information to children. This paper explored the views of caregivers on what makes disclosure to children with perinatal acquired HIV (PAH) difficult and what could make disclosure in these cases easier. Data were collected using focus group interviews with caregivers who were purposely selected from a multicenter study conducted in Botswana and South Africa. Forty-seven nondisclosed caregivers of children between 5 and 18 years who were receiving ART were interviewed. Caregivers felt that children should be told of their HIV-positive status despite the fact that none had disclosed this information to the children. The caregivers reported lack of disclosure skills but believed they were primarily responsible for disclosure to children and required support from healthcare workers (HCWs) during the disclosure process. They believed that counseling on how to approach disclosure and training on when and how to disclose will make the disclosure process easier. HCWs have a crucial role to play in promoting disclosure to perinatally infected children. The development of appropriate disclosure guidelines and training for HCWs will facilitate disclosure to children. Sphiwe Madiba Copyright © 2016 Sphiwe Madiba. All rights reserved. Breastfeeding among Latino Families in an Urban Pediatric Office Setting Thu, 17 Nov 2016 13:49:18 +0000 Objective. To determine the breastfeeding rate of Latino infants at an urban pediatric clinic in the first six months of life and to identify factors associated with breastfeeding. Methods. Investigators conducted a retrospective chart review of infants seen at the clinic in 2014 as part of a mixed methods study. Topics reviewed included demographics, infant health data, and feeding methods at 5 points in time. Bivariate correlations and cross-tabulations explored associations between variables. Results. Most of the mothers (75%) fed their newborns with both breastfeeding and formula (las dos). At 6 months, a majority were formula-fed only (55.9%). Approximately 10% of mothers exclusively breastfed their newborns, and the trend of exclusive breastfeeding remained steady through the 6-month visit. Over time, the number of mothers who exclusively bottle-feed their infants steadily rises. There were no statistical differences among the feeding method groups with regard to birth order of child, number of adults or children in the household, vaccination rate, number of sick visits, or infants’ growth. Conclusions. More targeted attention to this population and other immigrant populations with culturally tailored interventions spanning the prenatal to early infancy periods could increase exclusive breastfeeding and ultimately improve child health. Elizabeth Sloand, Chakra Budhathoki, Julia Junn, Dolly Vo, Victoria Lowe, and Amy Pennington Copyright © 2016 Elizabeth Sloand et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time Reporting of Small Operational Failures in Nursing Care Tue, 08 Nov 2016 13:50:09 +0000 Addressing microsystem problems from the frontline holds promise for quality enhancement. Frontline providers are urged to apply quality improvement; yet no systematic approach to problem detection has been tested. This study investigated a self-report approach to detecting operational failures encountered during patient care. Methods. Data were collected from 5 medical-surgical units over 4 weeks. Unit staff documented operational failures on a small distinctive Pocket Card. Frequency distributions for the operational failures in each category were calculated for each hospital overall and disaggregated by shift. Rate of operational failures on each unit was also calculated. Results. A total of 160 nurses participated in this study reporting a total of 2,391 operational failures over 429 shifts. Mean number of problems per shift varied from 4.0 to 8.5 problems with equipment/supply problems being the most commonly reported category. Conclusions. Operational failures are common on medical-surgical clinical units. It is feasible for unit staff to record these failures in real time. Many types of failures were recognized by frontline staff. This study provides preliminary evidence that the Pocket Card is a feasible approach to detecting operational failures in real time. Continued research on methodologies to investigate the impact of operational failures is warranted. Kathleen R. Stevens and Robert L. Ferrer Copyright © 2016 Kathleen R. Stevens and Robert L. Ferrer. All rights reserved. The Impact of Perceived Stress and Coping Adequacy on the Health of Nurses: A Pilot Investigation Tue, 01 Nov 2016 10:49:06 +0000 Stress and coping abilities influence the health and work performance of nurses. However, little is known about the combined influence of stress perception and perceived coping adequacy and its impact on the health of nurses. This study examined the relationship between stress, coping, and the combined influences of perceived stress and coping abilities on health and work performance. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed by 120 nurses in a Midwestern hospital in the USA. In general, the nurses were not healthy: 92% had moderate-to-very high stress levels; 78% slept less than 8 hours of sleep per night; 69% did not exercise regularly; 63% consumed less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day; and 22% were classified as binge drinkers. When confronted with workplace stress, 70% of nurses reported that they consumed more junk food and 63% reported that they consumed more food than usual as a way of coping. Nurses in the “high stress/poor coping” group had the poorest health outcomes and highest health risk behaviors compared to those in other groups. The combined variables of perceived stress and perceived coping adequacy influenced the health of nurses. Therefore, worksite health promotion programs for nurses should focus equally on stress reduction, stress management, and the development of healthy coping skills. Timothy R. Jordan, Jagdish Khubchandani, and Michael Wiblishauser Copyright © 2016 Timothy R. Jordan et al. All rights reserved. The NPs Role of Assessing and Intervening with Older Adult Drivers Sun, 23 Oct 2016 09:54:06 +0000 As the silver tsunami continues, assessing and intervening with older adult drivers are becoming an essential aspect of the comprehensive geriatric exam. The current lack of time efficient clinical guidelines is a concern and barrier for NPs. The purpose of this study was to identify strategies currently used by NPs. The critical incident technique was used to obtain data from a convenience sample of NPs. A total of 89 incidents were collected. The perspective of the NP can provide important information for developing clinical guidelines to promote individual and community safety. Tamatha Arms Copyright © 2016 Tamatha Arms. All rights reserved. Mentoring Nurses in Political Skill to Navigate Organizational Politics Thu, 29 Sep 2016 08:06:06 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the correlations between mentoring functions and political skill development among nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) degree. Background. The healthcare system is in flux; future generations of Ph.D. and DNP nurse leaders will be required to demonstrate political acumen. Political skill to navigate organizational politics has had limited research within nursing. Methods. A cross-sectional research design using a web-based survey of 222 nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP. This study utilized two validated tools to measure mentoring functions and political skill. Results. The response rate was 52% () of which 86 were Ph.D. and 29 were DNPs. An informal mentoring relationship was described by 62% of the respondents and formal mentoring by 35% of the protégés; only 25% () established a mentoring contract. Mentoring score showed significance for total political skill and moderate effect on the networking ability. The mentoring functions of advocacy, career development facilitation, learning facilitation, and friendship were found to correlate significantly with total political skill scores. Conclusions. This study established a benefit for nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP from mentoring to support political skill development. Wanda Montalvo and Mary W. Byrne Copyright © 2016 Wanda Montalvo and Mary W. Byrne. All rights reserved. Relatives to Critically Ill Patients Have No Sense of Coherence: A Quality Improvement Article Using Mixed Methods Thu, 15 Sep 2016 07:41:43 +0000 Aims and Objective. To investigate the relatives’ satisfaction and involvement on a general surgery ward regarding the critically ill patient. Introduction. Relatives to critically ill patients are affected both physically and mentally during the hospitalization of a family member. Research has shown that relatives do not always receive the attention they need from health professionals. There is a lack of studies that focus on relatives’ satisfaction and involvement during their family members’ hospitalization. Design. A mixed methods design was chosen. Methods. A quantitative study was conducted with 27 relatives to critically ill patients. All participated in a questionnaire and out of the 27 relatives, six participated in qualitative in-depth interviews. Results. The questionnaire revealed that relatives were dissatisfied with care and involvement. For further exploration of the dissatisfaction, a qualitative approach was used and the in-depth interviews revealed three themes: lack of continuity and structure, responsibility of coordination, and relatives feeling left on their own with no guiding and support. Conclusion. Health professionals’ key role in relation to relatives must be guidance and support. Thereby, relatives can gain a sense of coherence during the hospitalization of a critically ill patient, which can lead to a greater satisfaction and thereby better support for the patient. Jannie Laursen, Kristoffer Andresen, and Jacob Rosenberg Copyright © 2016 Jannie Laursen et al. All rights reserved. An Exploratory Study Using Cortisol to Describe the Response of Incarcerated Women IPV Survivors to MAMBRA Intervention Thu, 08 Sep 2016 14:35:19 +0000 Objective. To determine if incarcerated women survivors of IPV had a physiological response to the Music and Account-Making for Behavioral-Related Adaptation (MAMBRA) intervention, as measured by cortisol levels. Methods. A single-group repeated measures designed exploratory study was used to pilot-test MAMBRA. A convenience sample () was recruited in a Midwestern women’s correctional facility. Serving as their own control, participants provided demographics and pre-/post-MAMBRA salivary samples while attending four MAMBRA sessions. Baseline data were compared to participants’ data collected over the remaining 3 MAMBRA sessions. Data were analyzed with descriptive and univariate statistics with an alpha of .05 and post-hoc power of .65. Results. Participants were predominantly White (52%), single (80%), and early middle-aged (), with a history of physical/nonphysical spousal abuse. Using a subsample (), salivary cortisol decreased between the pre-/post-MAMBRA over the sessions (, ). Conclusion. Participants had a physiological response to the MAMBRA intervention as evidenced by the decreased cortisol between the pre-/post-MAMBRA. This is the first step in examining MAMBRA’s clinical utility as an intervention for female IPV survivors. Future longitudinal studies will examine MAMBRA’s effectiveness given this change in cortisol. Janette Y. Taylor and Ezra C. Holston Copyright © 2016 Janette Y. Taylor and Ezra C. Holston. All rights reserved.