Table of Contents
Research Letters in Organic Chemistry
Volume 2008, Article ID 959372, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/959372
Research Letter

Photochromism of Dihydroindolizines Part XI: Synthesis of Novel Carbon-Rich Photochromic Dihydroindolizines-Based Potential Electronic Devices

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut, Egypt
2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Madina Al-Munawara 30002, Saudi Arabia

Received 9 July 2008; Accepted 12 October 2008

Academic Editor: Cyril Parkanyi

Copyright © 2008 Saleh Abdel-Mgeed Ahmed. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Irie, in Molecular Switches, B. L. Feringa, Ed., pp. 37–60, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2001.
  2. M. Irie, in Organic Photochromic and Thermochromic Compounds, J. C. Crano and R. J. Gugielmetti, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 207–221, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  3. M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, T. Sasaki, N. Tamai, and T. Kawai, “A digital fluorescent molecular photoswitch,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 759–760, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. T. Tsujioka, Y. Hamada, K. Shibata, A. Taniguchi, and T. Fuyuki, “Nondestructive readout of photochromic optical memory using photocurrent detection,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, no. 16, pp. 2282–2284, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. T. Kawai, T. Kunitake, and M. Irie, “Novel photochromic conducting polymer having diarylethene derivative in the main chain,” Chemistry Letters, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 905–906, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. C. Bertarelli, A. Bianco, F. D'Amore, M. C. Gallazzi, and G. Zerbi, “Effect of substitution on the change of refractive index in dithienylethenes: an ellipsometric study,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 357–363, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. R. A. van Delden, M. K. J. ter Wiel, and B. L. Feringa, “A chiroptical molecular switch with perfect stereocontrol,” Chemical Communications, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 200–201, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Moniruzzaman, C. J. Sabey, and G. F. Fernando, “Synthesis of azobenzene-based polymers and the in-situ characterization of their photoviscosity effects,” Macromolecules, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 2572–2577, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. L. N. Lucas, J. van Esch, R. M. Kellogg, and B. L. Feringa, “Photocontrolled self-assembly of molecular switches,” Chemical Communications, no. 8, pp. 759–760, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. A.-M. Ahmed, T. Hartmann, V. Huch, H. Dürr, and A. A. Abdel-Wahab, “Synthesis of IR-sensitive photoswitchable molecules: photochromic 9-styrylquinolinedihydroindolizines,” Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 539–548, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. Y. Tan, S. A.-M. Ahmed, H. Dürr, V. Huch, and A. Abdel-Wahab, “First intramolecular trapping and structural proof of the key intermediate in the formation of indolizine photochromics,” Chemical Communications, no. 14, pp. 1246–1247, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. S. A.-M. Ahmed, “Photochromic spirotetrahydroazafluorenes: part IV. First trapping of novel type of cis-fixed photochromes based on pyridazinopyrrolo[1,2-b]isoquinoline,” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol. 430, pp. 295–300, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. S. A.-M. Ahmed and H. Dürr, “Photochromic spirotetrahydroazafluorenes: part V. Why photochromic molecules with rigid region B exhibiting extremely fast bleaching process?” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol. 431, pp. 275–280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. S. A.-M. Ahmed, “Photochromism of dihydroindolizines. Part III [1]. Synthesis and photochromic behavior of novel photochromic dihydroindolizines incorporating a cholesteryl moiety,” Monatshefte für Chemie, vol. 135, no. 9, pp. 1173–1188, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. S. A.-M. Ahmed, A.-M. Abdel-Wahab, and H. Dürr, “Steric substituent effects of new photochromic tetrahydroindolizines leading to tunable photophysical behavior of the colored betaines,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 154, no. 2-3, pp. 131–144, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. S. A.-M. Ahmed, “Photochromism of dihydroindolizines. Part II. Synthesis and photophysical properties of new photochromic IR-sensitive photoswitchable substituted fluorene-9-styrylquinolinedihydroindolizines,” Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 392–402, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. S. A.-M. Ahmed, “Photochromism of dihydroindolizines part VI: synthesis and photochromic behavior of a novel type of IR-absorbing photochromic compounds based on highly conjugated dihydroindolizines,” Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 402–414, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. S. A.-M. Ahmed, “Photochromism of dihydroindolizines part VII: multiaddressable photophysical properties of new photochromic dihydroindolizines bearing substituted benzo[i]phenanthridine as a fluorescing moiety,” Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 574–588, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. A.-M. Ahmed, “Photochromism of dihydroindolizines part VI: synthesis and photochromic behavior of a novel type of IR-absorbing photochromic compounds based on highly conjugated dihydroindolizines,” Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 402–414, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. S. A.-M. Ahmed, T. Hartmann, and H. Dürr, “Photochromism of dihydroindolizines. Part VIII. First holographic image recording based on di- and tetrahydroindolizines photochromes,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 200, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. A.-M. Ahmed and J.-L. Pozzo, “Photochromism of dihydroindolizines Part IX. First attempts towards efficient self-assembling organogelators based on photochromic dihydroindolizines and N -acyl-1,ω-amino acid units,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 200, no. 1, pp. 57–67, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. H. Dürr, C. Schommer, and T. Münzmay, “Dihydropyrazolopyridine und Bis(dihydroindolizine) - neuartige mono- und difunktionelle photochrome Systeme,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 565–567, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. H. Dürr, C. Schommer, and T. Münzmay, “Dihydropyrazolopyridine and bis(dihydroindolizine)-novel mono- and bifunctional photochromic systems,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 572–574, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. R. Fromm, S. A.-M. Ahmed, T. Hartmann, V. Huch, A. A. Abdel-Wahab, and H. Dürr, “A new photochromic system based on a pyridazinopyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine with ultrafast thermal decoloration,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2001, no. 21, pp. 4077–4080, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. A.-M. Ahmed, A. A. Abdel-Wahab, and H. Dürr, “Photochromic nitrogen-containing compounds,” in CRC Handbook of Organic Photochemistry and Photobiology, W. M. Horspool and F. Lenci, Eds., chapter 96, pp. 1–25, CRC press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  26. H. Dürr, “Perspectives in photochromism: a novel system based on the 1,5-electrocyclization of heteroanalogous pentadienyl anions,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 413–431, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. A.-M. Ahmed, C. Weber, Z. A. Hozien, Kh. M. Hassan, A. A. Abdel-Wahab, and H. Dürr, unpublished results.
  28. S. A.-M. Ahmed, Ph. D. thesis, Saarland-Assiut Universities, 2000.
  29. S. Zarwell and K. Rück-Braun, “Synthesis of an azobenzene-linker-conjugate with tetrahedrical shape,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 49, no. 25, pp. 4020–4025, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. H. Jian and J. M. Tour, “En route to surface-bound electric field-driven molecular motors,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 13, pp. 5091–5103, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Schönberg, Präparative Organische Photochemie, chapter 1, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1958.