Table of Contents
Organic Chemistry International
Volume 2014, Article ID 210327, 10 pages
Research Article

Kinetic and Mechanistic Investigation of Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine Formation in the Presence of Catalyst under Novel One-Pot Three-Component Reaction

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, P.O. Box 98135-674, Zahedan 76177-48414, Iran

Received 3 February 2014; Revised 25 February 2014; Accepted 25 February 2014; Published 11 May 2014

Academic Editor: Ashraf Aly Shehata

Copyright © 2014 Sayyed Mostafa Habibi-Khorassani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sodium acetate was applied as an efficient catalyst for the one-pot, three-component condensation reactions consisting of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde 2, malononitrile 3, and thiobarbituric acid 1. Use of nontoxic reaction components, short reaction times, environmental, easy work-up, and high yields are some remarkable advantages of this method. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction were spectrally studied and the second order rate constant (kovr = k1) was automatically calculated by the standard equations contained within the program. The second order rate constant [Ln(kovr = k1), Ln(kovr = k1)/T] that depended on reciprocal temperature was in good agreement with the Arrhenius and Eyring equations, respectively. This data provided the suitable plots for calculating the activation energy and parameters (Ea, ΔG, ΔS, and ΔH) of the reaction. Furthermore, from studying the effects of solvent, concentration, and catalyst on the reaction rate, useful information was obtained regarding the mechanism. The results showed that the first step of the reaction mechanism is a rate determining step (RDS). The proposed mechanism was confirmed in accordance with the experimental data and also the steady state approximation.