Obstetrics and Gynecology International / 2010 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Venous Doppler in the Evaluation of Fetal Hydrops

Table 1

Grouping of fetal hydrops by pathophysiological cause.

A. Hydrops caused by high-output heart failure ( )

      23 fetal anemia (13 Parvo B19 virus infection, 7 anti-D or anti Kell-immunization)
      2 fetomaternal transfusion, 1 hemoglobulinopathy
      3 twin-twin transfusion syndrome
      1 large sacrococcygeal teratoma
      5 atypical course of the umbilical vein

B. Hydrops caused by low-output cardiac failure ( )

      10 severe obstruction of the cardiac outflow tract
       (1 HRHS, 2 PS+TR, 4 HLHS, 2 AoS+ MR, and 1 CoAo)
      5 small heart syndromes (size of 17 to 19 mm)
      4 arrhythmia (3 SVT, 1 AV-block 30)
      2 myocardial hypertrophy
      2 rhabdomyoma
      1 atrial aneurysm

C. Hydrops caused by obstruction of venous return ( )

      13 uni- or bilateral hydrothorax
      4 lung malformation (3 CCAML, 1 sequestration)
      3 tumor in the mediastinum or in the liver
      2 meconiumileus
      1 megacystis
      1 cholangiodysplasia
      1 diaphragmatic hernia

D. Hydrops of idiopathic cause ( )

      9 hydrops with unclear or multiple diagnosis
      10 chromosomal aberrations
       (5 trisomy 21, 3 Turner Syndrome, 1 triploidy, 1 marker chromosome)

HRHS: hypoplastic right heart syndrome; PS: pulmonary stenosis; TR: tricuspid regurgitation;
HLHS: hypoplastic left heart syndrome; AoS: aortic stenosis; MR: mitral regurgitation; CoAo: coarctation of the aorta; SVT: supraventricle tachycardia.