Table 2: Odds ratios (OR, z-score bands) of white matter damage (WMD) assessed by cranial ultrasound according to anthropomorphic measurements in 4,725 term-born neonates at 37–43 weeks’ gestation. Please note that only head circumference (HC) showed a close relation to the risk of white matter damage over all z-score bands in that the odds ratios were significantly different in the <10%, 10 to <25%, 75 to <90%, and ≥90% z-score bands as compared with the reference (25 to <75%). And also note that the morphometric index (MMI) reflects the increased risk of white matter damage <10% and ≥90% centiles and is calculated as follows: MMI = (z-scoreWeight (centile) + z-scoreLength (centile) + z-scoreHC (centile) + z-scoreWeight/Length-ratio (centile) + z-score (3.1168–0.12797HC (centile) + 0.0014741HC2 (centile)))/5.

z-score bands (equivalent centiles)
Measurementn Newborns screenedn WMD (%)<−1.28 (<10%)nn WMD (%)−1.28 to <−0.67 (10 to <25%)nn WMD (%)−0.67 to <0.67 (25 to <75%)nn WMD (%)0.67 to <1.28 (75 to <90%)nn WMD (%)≥1.28 (≥90%)nn WMD (%)
OR (CI)OR (CI)OROR (CI)OR (CI)

Weight (g)4,72561 (1.3)2.96 (1.51–5.80)47914 (2.9)0.0011.25 (0.58–2.71)7179 (1.3)0.572Reference2,28423 (1.0)1.11 (0.48–2.60)7727 (0.9)0.8070.59 (0.26–1.33)4738 (1.7)0.199
Length (cm)4,72561 (1.3)2.70 (1.16–6.28)2578 (3.1)0.0161.15 (0.60–2.19)1,41319 (1.4)0.680Reference1,53218 (1.2)1.28 (0.59–2.77)1,08210 (0.9)0.5400.86 (0.34–2.19)4416 (1.4)0.754
Head circumference (cm)4,72561 (1.3)3.48 (1.35–8.98)2556 (2.4)0.0062.10 (1.09–4.04)1,46521 (1.4)0.023Reference2,32816 (0.7)0.34 (0.15–0.76)50410 (2.0)0.0060.14 (0.06–0.34)1738 (4.6)<0.001
Morphometric index4,72561 (1.3)0.34 (0.14–0.86)47214 (3.0)0.0010.00 (0.00–4.11)7095 (0.7)0.412Reference2,36226 (1.1)0.04 (0.00–39.74)7104 (0.6)0.2651.37 (0.29–6.34)47212 (2.5)0.011
Weight-length ratio (W/L)4,72561 (1.3)2.44 (1.18–5.03)47211 (2.3)0.0130.16 (0.78–3.32)70811 (1.6)0.192Reference2,37123 (1.0)1.03 (0.44–2.41)7027 (1.1)0.9490.18 (0.02–2.04)4729 (1.9)0.078
Ponderal index (100W/L3)4,72561 (1.3)0.84 (0.32–2.17)4705 (1.1)0.7171.10 (0.54–2.27)71410 (1.4)0.788Reference2,36130 (1.3)1.10 (0.54–2.27)71410 (1.4)0.7881.17 (0.51–2.69)4717 (1.5)0.707

Reference value: z-score band −0.67 to <0.67 (25th to below 75th centile); All bold p values highlight OR (CI) that are significantly different from the reference; the level of significance is given by the probability of error (p).