Autophagy is a catalytic process of the bulk degradation of long-lived cellular components, ultimately resulting in lysosomal digestion within mature cytoplasmic compartments known as autophagolysosomes. Autophagy serves many functions in the cell, including maintaining cellular homeostasis, a means of cell survival during stress (e.g., nutrient deprivation or starvation) or conversely as a mechanism for cell death. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the resulting oxidative cell stress that occurs in many disease states has been shown to induce autophagy. The following review focuses on the roles that autophagy plays in response to the ROS generated in several diseases.