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Figure 2: Acetaldehyde causes neuronal oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Rat cerebellar neuron cultures were treated with 3.5 mM acetaldehyde for 48 hours, and used to measure (a) 4-HNE, (b) 8-OHdG, (c) Cyquant fluorescence-viability (CYQ), (d) ATP content, (e) MitoTracker Red (MTR), (f) MitoTracker Green (MTG), (g) ChAT and (h) GAPDH. 4-HNE, 8-OHdG, ChAT, and GAPDH immunoreactivities were measured by cellular ELISA. Viability and mitochondrial assays were measured in labeled cells. All results were normalized to H33342 fluorescence, which is linearly correlated with cell number. Box plots depict the mean (horizontal bar), 95% confidence interval limits (upper and lower edges of boxes), and range (whiskers). Inter-group comparisons were made using Student T-tests. Significant differences are indicated within the panels.