Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2011, Article ID 734319, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/734319
Research Article

Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, India

Received 2 August 2011; Accepted 23 September 2011

Academic Editor: Pranela Rameshwar

Copyright © 2011 Santanu Kar Mahapatra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. K. Mahapatra, S. P. Chakraborty, and S. Roy, “Aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn and ascorbic acid ameliorate nicotine-induced cellular damage in murine peritoneal macrophage,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 775–782, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. K. Mahapatra, S. P. Chakraborty, S. Das, and S. Roy, “Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 222–230, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. D. Onajobi, “Smoth muscle contracting lipidicsoluble principles in chromatographic fractions of Ocimum gratissimum,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 18, pp. 3–11, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. O. Ilori, A. O. Sheteolu, E. A. Omonigbehin, and A. A. Adeneye, “Antidiarrhoeal activities of Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae),” Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 283–285, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. K. Gupta, J. Prakash, and S. Srivastava, “Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 765–773, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Prakash, S. K. Gupta, N. Singh, V. Kochupillai, and K. Gupta, “Antiproliferative and chemopreventive activity of Ocimum sanctum linn,” International Journal of Medicine, Biology and the Environment, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 165–171, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. J. Jariwalla and S. Harakech, “Ascorbic acid,” in Biochemistry and Biomedical Cell Biology, J. R. Harris, Ed., pp. 215–231, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  8. S. S. Bail, R. Weindruch, and R. L. Walford, “Free radicals, ageing and degenerative diseases,” in Antioxidants and the Immune Response, J. E. Johnson Jr., I. L. Walford, D. Harman, and M. J. Liss, Eds., pp. 427–756, Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  9. I. Perez-Cruz, J. M. Carcamo, and D. W. Golde, “Vitamin C inhibits FAS-induced apoptosis in monocytes and U937 cells,” Blood, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 336–343, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. C. De La Fuente and R. S. Panush, “Modulation of certain immunologic responses by vitamin C. II. Enhancement of concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocyte responses,” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  11. B. Leibovitz and B. V. Siegel, “Ascorbic acid, neutrophil function, and the immune response,” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 159–164, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. J. Goetzl, S. I. Wasserman, I. Gigli, and K. F. Austen, “Enhancement of random migration and chemotactic response of human leukocytes by ascorbic acid,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 813–818, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  13. H. Mitsuzumi, M. Kusamiya, T. Kurimoto, and I. Yamamoto, “Requirement of cytokines for augmentation of the antigen-specific antibody responses by ascorbate in cultured murine T-cell-depleted splenocytes,” Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 169–179, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. V. V. Victor, N. Guayerbas, M. Puerto, S. Medina, and M. De La Fuente, “Ascorbic acid modulates in vitro the function of macrophages from mice with endotoxic shock,” Immunopharmacology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 89–101, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. De La Fuente and V. M. Victor, “Ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine improve in vitro the function of lymphocytes from mice with endotoxin-induced oxidative stress,” Free Radical Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 73–84, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Winkler, K. Schroecksnadel, H. Schennach, and D. Fuchs, “Vitamin C and E suppress mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro,” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 127–132, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. H. Chang, C. S. Chen, and J. Y. Lin, “High dose vitamin C supplementation increases the Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion ratio, but decreases eosinophilic infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged mice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 21, pp. 10471–10476, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Hill and N. Sarvetnick, “Cytokines: promoters and dampeners of autoimmunity,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 791–797, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Krause, G. Valesini, R. Scrivo, and Y. Shoenfeld, “Autoimmune aspects of cytokine and anticytokine therapies,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 390–397, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Maes, C. Song, A. Lin et al., “The effects of psychological stress on humans: increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1-like response in stress-induced anxiety,” Cytokine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 313–318, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Maes, C. Song, and A. Lin, “Immune and clinical correlates of psychological stress-induced production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in humans,” in Cytokines: Stress and Immunity, N. P. Plotnikoff, R. E. Faith, A. J. Murgo, and R. A. Good, Eds., pp. 39–50, CRC Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  22. Z. Xing, “Current understanding of macrophage type 1 cytokine responses during intracellular infections,” Histology and Histopathology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 199–205, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Tabatabaie, A. Vasquez-Weldon, D. R. Moore, and Y. Kotake, “Free radicals and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes: β-cell cytokine-mediated free radical generation via cyclooxygenase-2,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1994–1999, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. Yong, L. Chang, Y. X. Mei, and L. Yi, “Role and mechanisms of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in the induction and maintenance of transplantation tolerance,” Transplant Immunology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 120–129, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. K. Mahapatra, S. Das, S. Bhattacharjee, N. Gautam, S. Majumdar, and S. Roy, “In vitro nicotine-induced oxidative stress in mice peritoneal macrophages: a dose-dependent approach,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 100–108, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Kar Mahapatra, S. P. Chakraborty, and S. Roy, “In vitro time dependent nicotine-induced free radical generation and status of glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophage,” Al Ameen Journal of Medical Science, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 182–194, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. Das, S. Neogy, N. Gautam, and S. Roy, “In vitro nicotine induced superoxide mediated DNA fragmentation in lymphocytes: protective role of Andrographis paniculata Nees,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 90–98, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Neogy, S. Das, S. K. Mahapatra, N. Mandal, and S. Roy, “Amelioratory effect of Andrographis paniculata Nees on liver, kidney, heart, lung and spleen during nicotine induced oxidative stress,” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 321–328, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Ouyang, N. Virasch, P. Hao et al., “Suppression of human IL-1β, IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α production by cigarette smoke extracts,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 280–287, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Hakki, N. Hallquist, H. Friedman, and S. Pross, “Differential impact of nicotine on cellular proliferation and cytokine production by LPS-stimulated murine splenocytes,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 403–410, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. A. Whetzel, E. J. Corwin, and L. C. Klein, “Disruption in Th1/Th2 immune response in young adult smokers,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Kar Mahapatra, S. P. Chakraborty, S. Majumdar, B. G. Bag, and S. Roy, “Eugenol protects nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 623, no. 1–3, pp. 132–140, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Kar Mahapatra, S. Bhattacharjee, S. P. Chakraborty, S. Majumdar, and S. Roy, “Alteration of immune functions and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in nicotine-induced murine macrophages: immunomodulatory role of eugenol and N-acetylcysteine,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 485–495, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. E. Ortega, F. Hueso, M. E. Collazos, M. I. Pedrera, C. Barriga, and A. B. Rodriguez, “Phagocytosis of latex beads by alveolar macrophages from mice exposed to cigarette smoke,” Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 137–142, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. E. Ortega, C. Barriga, and A. B. Rodriguez, “Decline in the phagocytic function of alveolar macrophages from mice exposed to cigarette smoke,” Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  36. K. M. Braun, T. Cornish, A. Valm, J. Cundiff, J. L. Pauly, and S. Fan, “Immunotoxicology of cigarette smoke condensates: suppression of macrophage responsiveness to interferon γ,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 136–143, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. P. Lau, L. Li, A. J. Merched, A. L. Zhang, K. W. S. Ko, and L. Chan, “Nicotine induces proinflammatory responses in macrophages and the aorta leading to acceleration of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-/- mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 143–149, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. J. Barnes and F. Y. Liew, “Nitric oxide and asthmatic inflammation,” Immunology Today, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 128–130, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. Kolb and V. Kolb-Bachofen, “Nitric oxide in autoimmune disease: cytotoxic or regulatory mediator?” Immunology Today, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 556–561, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. W. Taylor-Robinson, “Inhibition of IL-2 production by nitric oxide: a novel self-regulatory mechanism for Th1 cell proliferation,” Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. F. L. M. Ricciardolo, P. J. Sterk, B. Gaston, and G. Folkerts, “Nitric oxide in health and disease of the respiratory system,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 731–765, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. K. Song, Y. B. Im, J. S. Jung et al., “Central injection of nicotine increases hepatic and splenic interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA expression and plasma IL-6 levels in mice: involvement of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1259–1267, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. M. Petro, S. D. Schwartzbach, and S. Zhang, “Smokeless tobacco and nicotine bring about excessive cytokine responses of murine memory T-cells,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 103–114, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. Koshi, N. Sugano, H. Orii, T. Fukuda, and K. Ito, “Microarray analysis of nicotine-induced changes in gene expression in a macrophage-like human cell line,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 518–526, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. M. Victor and M. De la Fuente, “N-acetylcysteine improves in vitro the function of macrophages from mice with endotoxin-induced oxidative stress,” Free Radical Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 33–45, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. C. Wilkinson, “Locomotion and chemotaxis of leukocytes,” in Handbook of Experimental Immunology, D. M. Weir, Ed., pp. 51.1–51.16, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, UK, 4th edition, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  47. M. De La Fuente, “Changes in the macrophage function with aging,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 935–938, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. C. J. Leigh, R. Van Furth, and T. L. Zwet, “In vitro determination of phagocytosis and intracellular killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes,” in Handbook of Experimental Immunology, D. M. Weir, Ed., vol. 46, pp. 1–19, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, UK, 4th edition, 1977. View at Google Scholar