935160.fig.004
Figure 4: Effects of the metal mixture (2  M NaAsO2, 2  M CdCl2, and 5  M Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O) through promotion phase of transformation process, oxidative damage markers. Balb/c 3T3 cells were exposed 4 hours to initiator stimuli, metal mixture or MNNG (positive initiator), on day 1 and promoter stimuli, metal mixture or TPA (positive promoter), on days 7, 11, and 14. Samplings were on days 11, 16, and 21 of the transformation protocol for monitoring promotion phase. Data represent the mean of 3 individual experiments performed by triplicate. We evaluated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using dihydrorhodamine-123 oxidation. Lipid peroxidation (LPx) was assessed using the thiobarbituric acid method, and genotoxicity was determined using the alkaline comet assay. ANOVA and Student’s t-test; * , *** versus control bars.