Figure 1: OSA-induced cardiovascular diseases. OSA increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases through three main pathological processes related with OSA: chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), sleep fragmentation (SF), and intrathoracic pressure changes. It can increase the risk of heart failure by 140%, stroke by 60%, and coronary heart disease by 30%. It can also increase the risk of other cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and cardiac arrhythmia.