Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Preclinical and Clinical Evidence of Antioxidant Effects of Antidepressant Agents: Implications for the Pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder

Table 2

In vitro studies with antidepressants.

MethodAntidepressant drugs testedMain findingsReference

In vitroRat brain mitochondriaFluoxetineIndirectly and nonspecifically affects electron transport and F1F0-ATPase activity inhibiting oxidative phosphorylationCurti et al., 1999 [6]
In vitroRat liver mitochondriaFluoxetineMultiple effects on the energy metabolism of rat liver mitochondria; potentially toxic in high dosesSouza et al., 1994 [7]
In vitroRat liver mitochondriaFluoxetineInhibits the opening of the MPT pore, the release of cytC, and protected against staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell deathNahon et al., 2005 [8]
In vitroRat liver mitochondriaNortriptylineInhibits loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of caspase 3Zhang et al., 2008 [9]
Cell culturePCN cells oxygen/glucose deprivedNortriptylineDecrease cell deathZhang et al., 2008 [9]
Cell culturePC12 cells exposed to H2O2Amitriptyline, fluoxetineBoth agents attenuated cell death induced by H2O2, fluoxetine pretreatment increased SOD activityKolla et al., 2005 [10]
Cell cultureIFN-γ-activated microgliaFluvoxamine, imipramine, reboxetineAll drugs inhibited IL-6 and NO production in a dose-dependent mannerHashioka et al., 2007 [11]
Cell cultureHuman monocytic U-937 cellsDesipramine, imipramine, maprotiline, and mirtazapineShort-term treatment decreased mRNA levels of SOD and CAT after treatment with these drugs; long-term treatment increased mRNA levels of SOD, GST, and GRSchmidt et al., 2008 [12]

CAT: catalase; cytC: cytochrome C; GR: glutathione reductase; GST: glutathione S-transferase; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; IFN-γ: interferon-gamma; IL-6: interleukin 6; MPT: mitochondrial permeability transition; NO: nitric oxide; SOD: superoxide dismutase.

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