Research Article

A Combination of Lipoic Acid Plus Coenzyme Q10 Induces PGC1α, a Master Switch of Energy Metabolism, Improves Stress Response, and Increases Cellular Glutathione Levels in Cultured C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

Figure 2

(a) Treatment of C2C12 cells with 250 μmol/L LA plus 100 μmol/L Q10 for 16 h differentially affects genes encoding proteins involved in glutathione synthesis, recycling, and metabolism as well as glutathione-related phase II response genes including γ-glutamylcysteine-synthetase (γGCS), glutathione reductase (GSR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST), according to DAVID and KEGG pathway analysis. (b) Indicates fold changes, gene IDs, and the respective putative Nrf2 binding sites in the alternative murine promoter sequences of LA-plus-Q10-regulated genes as determined via MatInspector. (c) Glutathione (GSH) concentration in C2C12 cells in response to LA plus Q10 treatment (data are mean + SEM of three independent experiments; *indicates significant difference to the control cells; ; Student’s t-test).