154279.fig.001a
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154279.fig.001b
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Figure 1: Time- and dose-dependent increases of mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells by quercetin treatment. (a–f) HepG2 cells (4 × 105 cells/well) were exposed for indicated times (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 h) to various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 25 μM) of quercetin. (a, b) mRNA expressions of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1, NRF-1, and TFAM) were determined by reverse transcription PCR. GAPDH served as the standard. (c, d) Expression of COX IV protein was determined by Western blot analysis. β-actin served as the standard. (e, f) Expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content was quantified by real-time PCR. Relative amount of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) contents were compared. Results are expressed as mean ± SE of three independent experiments, and representative data are shown. * compared with untreated control group. HepG2 cells (4 × 105 cells/well) were exposed to quercetin 15 μM, quercetin and SnPP (a), and Hb (b) for 3 h as described in panels (a) and (b). mRNA expressions of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1, NRF-1, and TFAM) were determined by reverse transcription (RT) PCR. Results are expressed as mean ± SE of three independent experiments, and representative data are shown. * compared with untreated control group.