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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 157857, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/157857
Research Article

NADPH Oxidase and the Degeneration of Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinsonian Mice

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-900 SP, Brazil

Received 9 August 2013; Revised 8 October 2013; Accepted 23 October 2013

Academic Editor: Tiago Fleming Outeiro

Copyright © 2013 Marina S. Hernandes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Several lines of investigation have implicated oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we characterized the involvement of NADPH oxidase (Nox), a multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen, in the 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced PD mice model and compared for the first time the effects of this neurotoxin in mice lacking , the catalytic subunit of Nox2, and pharmacological inhibition of Nox with apocynin. Six-OHDA induced increased protein expression of , a Nox subunit, in striatum. mice appear to be completely protected from dopaminergic cell loss, whereas the apocynin treatment conferred only a limited neuroprotection. Wt mice treated with apocynin and mice both exhibited ameliorated apomorphine-induced rotational behavior. The microglial activation observed within the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 6-OHDA-injected Wt mice was prevented by apocynin treatment and was not detected in mice. Apocynin was not able to attenuate astrocyte activation in SN. The results support a role for Nox2 in the 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and glial cell activation in the nigrostriatal pathway and reveal that no comparable 6-OHDA effects were observed between apocynin-treated and mice groups.