Table 1: Expression of tight junction proteins in various cellular models of oxidative stress.

BBB in vitro  
Type of experimentSpecial conditionsDocumentation of BBB permeability increaseTight junction proteins alterationsReference

BBMEC monolayersHypoxic stress Glial conditioned-media treatmentPermeability studies with [14]-sucroseClaudin-1 shows a significant increase following hypoxic stress [21]

BBMEC monolayersHypoxia/reoxygenationnoneTEER measurements and [14]-sucrose transfer across the barrierSignificant increase in expression
of occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2

Rat GP8/3.9 cellsROS generating environment by a mixture of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthineTEER
FITC-dextran permeability across the barrier
Decrease of occludin and claudin-5 expression after exposure to oxidative environment [103]

PBMECHypoxiaCoculture with astrocytes/C6 glioma cellsTEER and passage of [3H]inulinDecreased ZO-1 immunoreactivity
at regions of cell-cell contact

BMVECs on a 8.0  m matrigel-based insert MMPs aggressionCoculture with leukemic cells40 kDa dextran-FITC flux by flow cytometry analysisDownregulation of ZO-1, claudin-5, and occludin [132]

hCMEC/D3 (immortalized human BEC line)A peptides treatmentspermeability to the paracellular tracer 70 kD FITC-dextranDecrease in the occludin level, whereas claudin-5 and ZO-1 were unaffected[85]

Human BMVECExposure to ROSTEER and monocytes migration studiesDecreased occludin and ZO-1 total content, whereas claudin-5 expression depended on the type of stressor used[91]

BBMEC: bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.
TEER: transendothelial electrical resistance.
PBMEC: primary cultures of porcine brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells.
BMVEC: brain microvascular endothelial cells.
ROS: reactive oxygen species.
MMPs: matrix metalloproteinases.