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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 323619, 11 pages
Review Article

Mitochondrial-Targeted Two-Photon Fluorescent Probes for Zinc Ions, , and Thiols in Living Tissues

1Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Republic of Korea
2Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 1-Anamdong, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea

Received 26 July 2012; Revised 26 October 2012; Accepted 28 December 2012

Academic Editor: Antonio Ascensao

Copyright © 2013 Hwan Myung Kim and Bong Rae Cho. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mitochondria provide the energy of the cells and are the primary site of oxygen consumption and the major source of reactive oxygen species. In mitochondria, metal ions and glutathione play vital roles in maintaining their structure and the redox environment. To understand their roles in mitochondria, it is crucial to monitor each of these chemical species in the mitochondria at the cell, tissue, and organism levels. An ideal tool for such purpose is the use of two-photon microscopy (TPM). Until recently, however, there has been no report on the two-photon (TP) probes suitable for such applications. In this paper, we summarize the mitochondria-targeted TP probes for Zn2+, H2O2, and thiols, as well as their bioimaging applications.