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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013, Article ID 409321, 11 pages
Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells

1Department of Food and Life Sciences, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749, Republic of Korea
2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714, Republic of Korea

Received 23 June 2013; Revised 16 August 2013; Accepted 10 September 2013

Academic Editor: Cristina Angeloni

Copyright © 2013 Min-Ji Bak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effect and underlying mechanisms of wild grape seeds procyanidins (WGP) were examined using lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We used nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays to examine inhibitory effect of WGP and further investigated the mechanisms of WGP suppressed LPS-mediated genes and upstream expression by Western blot and confocal microscopy analysis. Our data indicate that WGP significantly reduced NO, PGE2, and ROS production and also inhibited the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expressions. Consistently, WGP significantly reduced LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin- (IL-) 1β. Moreover, WGP prevented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) p65 subunit by reducing inhibitory κB-α (IκBα) and NFκB phosphorylation. Furthermore, we found that WGP inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our results demonstrated that WGP exerts potent anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 by regulating NFκB and p38 MAPK pathway.