Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells

Figure 4

Effects of WGP on LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production and iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells. (a) NO formation. The cells were treated with LPS only or with WGP at 35 μg/mL for 24 h. The culture media were collected, and the nitric oxide concentration was measured by the Griess reaction. (b) PGE2 formation. Each culture supernatant was collected, and the amount of PGE2 was measured using the PGE2 parameter assay kit. Each value represents mean ± SD of triplicate experiments. (c) The cells were treated with WGP (35 μg/mL) for 1 h and then treated with LPS for 24 h. Equal amounts of total protein were subjected to Western blot analysis as described in Section 2. The ratio of immunointensity between the iNOS/COX-2 and the β-actin was calculated. Each bar (open bar, iNOS; closed bar, COX-2) represents means ± S.D. from three independent experiments. indicates differences from the unstimulated control group. indicates differences from the LPS-treated group.