Oxidative Stress and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways Involved in Cadmium-Induced BRL 3A Cell Apoptosis
Cd and NAC induce morphological changes in BRL 3A cells. Cultured cells were exposed to 0, 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L Cd for 12 h (a, b, c, and d). In the other experiment, the cells were pre-incubated with 2 mmol/L NAC for 30 min and incubated with 20 μmol/L Cd or only incubated with 2 mmol/L NAC for 12 h (f and e). (A) After the treatment, images were taken with an Olympus inverted phase-contrast microscope. (B) Thereafter, the cells were fixed, stained with Hoechst 33258, and then observed under a fluorescence microscope. Arrows indicate morphological changes (blebbing cells, chromatin condensation, or fragmentation) in the nuclei of BRL 3A cells. Scale bar: 100 μm.