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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013, Article ID 589606, 10 pages
Research Article

Hypothermia Improves Oral and Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygenation during Hemorrhagic Shock in Dogs

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany

Received 26 March 2013; Revised 3 September 2013; Accepted 1 October 2013

Academic Editor: Lance B. Becker

Copyright © 2013 Christian Vollmer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hypothermia is known to improve tissue function in different organs during physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypothermia on oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation (μHbO2) and perfusion (μflow) under physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. Five dogs were repeatedly anesthetized. All animals underwent each experimental protocol (randomized cross-over design): hypothermia (34°C), hypothermia during hemorrhage, normothermia, and normothermia during hemorrhage. Microcirculatory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. Systemic (DO2) and oral mucosal (μDO2) oxygen delivery were calculated. Hypothermia increased oral μHbO2 with no effect on gastric μHbO2. Hemorrhage reduced oral and gastric μHbO2 during normothermia (−36 ± 4% and −27 ± 7%); however, this effect was attenuated during additional hypothermia (−15 ± 5% and −11 ± 5%). The improved μHbO2 might be based on an attenuated reduction in μflow during hemorrhage and additional hypothermia (−51 ± 21 aU) compared to hemorrhage and normothermia (−106 ± 19 aU). μDO2 was accordingly attenuated under hypothermia during hemorrhage whereas DO2 did not change. Thus, in this study hypothermia alone improves oral μHbO2 and attenuates the effects of hemorrhage on oral and gastric μHbO2. This effect seems to be mediated by an increased μDO2 on the basis of increased μflow.