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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013, Article ID 635831, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/635831
Review Article

ALS and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario

Neuroscience Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012, India

Received 17 August 2013; Revised 7 October 2013; Accepted 17 October 2013

Academic Editor: Regina Menezes

Copyright © 2013 Akshay Anand et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human ALS in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in ALS. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like ALS.