Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013, Article ID 906726, 10 pages
Research Article

Brazilian Green Propolis Suppresses the Hypoxia-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in Microglia

1Department of Aging Science and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2Institution of Geriatric Qinghai Provincial Hospital, Xining 810007, China

Received 27 February 2013; Revised 17 June 2013; Accepted 2 July 2013

Academic Editor: Nilanjana Maulik

Copyright © 2013 Zhou Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hypoxia has been recently proposed as a neuroinflammatogen, which drives microglia to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-6. Considering the fact that propolis has hepatoprotective, antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects, propolis may have protective effects against the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, propolis (50 μg/mL) was found to significantly inhibit the hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, by MG6 microglia following hypoxic exposure (1% O2, 24 h). Furthermore, propolis significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in microglia. Moreover, systemic treatment with propolis (8.33 mg/kg, 2 times/day, i.p.) for 7 days significantly suppressed the microglial expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker for oxidative damaged DNA, in the somatosensory cortex of mice subjected to hypoxia exposure (10% O2, 4 h). These observations indicate that propolis suppresses the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses through inhibition of the NF-κB activation in microglia. Furthermore, increased generation of ROS from the mitochondria is responsible for the NF-κB activation. Therefore, propolis may be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation.